On August 7, 1803, Ivan Kruzenshtern (Adam Johann Ritter von Krusenstern), the German navigator in the Russian service, embarked on the first Russian expedition to circumnavigate the globe.
Captain-Lieutenant Yury Lisyansky assisted Kruzenshtern on the expedition.
The expedition was sponsored by Count Nikolai Rumyantsev and funded by the Russian-American Company.
GOAL #1 – delivery of the Russian-American Company’s goods to the Far East. (DONE)
GOAL #2 – sale of furs in China. (DONE)
GOAL #3 – establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and Japan by Russian ambassador to Japan, Nikolai Rezanov. (FAILED)
The ships for the voyage were purchased in England. Kruzenshtern took command of the “Nadezhda,” and Lisyansky took command of the “Neva.”
Starting from Kronstadt, both ships took a route across the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, past the Canary Islands and Brazil, after which the ships rounded Cape Horn and set across the Pacific Ocean towards Japan, making stops at the Marquesas and the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands, and also at Kamchatka. However, after leaving Hawaii the ships split, and Lisyansky headed to Russian America (Alaska). After its unsuccessful visit to Japan, Nadezhda set off towards Sitka, Alaska, sailed past China and Macao on the Indian Ocean, then rounded Africa and came back across the Baltic Sea to Kronstadt.
The voyage lasted a total of more than three years: from August 7, 1803, to August 19, 1806.
Upon his return, Kruzenshtern wrote a detailed report, which was published in two volumes in 1811 in Berlin, followed by an English translation two years later, published in London. His scientific work was published 1827 in St. Petersburg and won him an honorary membership in the Russian Academy of Sciences. Lisyanski received multiple rewards for his circumnavigate, including the Order of Saint Vladimir of 3rd degree.
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