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7 non-aggression pacts and treaties signed by European countries with Nazi Germany

The interwar period was not one of democracies versus dictatorships, it was one of an ultra-right, fascist central and eastern Europe against an isolated Soviet Union.

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The inter-war period of Europe was not one of burgeoning democracies formed from the ashes of the First World War, but rather, central and Europe were countries that were overwhelmingly far-right dictatorship.

These are just some examples:

HUNGARY: In the interwar years, Hungary was ruled by an ultra-reactionary government most prominently by Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös. 

LATVIA: Latvian dictator Kārlis Ulmanis ruled with an iron far-right fist throughout the interwar years. 

LITHUANIA: Interwar Lithuanian leader Antanas Smetona helped push the country further and further to the proto-fascist right. 

ESTONIA: Konstantin Päts was something of a softer but still strongly nationalist dictator who effectively killed off democracy

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely authoritarian rule. 

And then there was Poland, a country who under the strongman military rule of Józef Piłsudski was the first European power to sign a bilateral non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler, four years prior to the unification of Hitler’s Germany with Austria in the Anschluss.

Here is a list of all the European powers that signed non-aggression pacts with Nazi Germany prior to August of 1939.

1. Poland–1934

The Second Polish Republic was dominated by two political rivals, Józef Piłsudski and Roman Dmowski. Although both figures are venerated in contemporary Poland, each man had a radically different idea about what Poland ought to be.

Józef Piłsudski called for a ‘greater Poland’ which would encompass much of the territory of the once vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which once dominated central and Eastern Europe.

Piłsudski was stridently anti-Russian whilst he totally underestimated and even discounted the coming German threat.

He sought to build a right-wing European federation which would rival and dominate the neighbouring Soviet Union. It was this policy which allowed his country to sleepwalk into the Polish-Soviet War which lasted from 1919-1921. It was Europe’s most protracted conflict of the inter-world war period….

…By contrast, Roman Dmowski favoured the settled post-First World War Polish borders and sought an ethnically and culturally homogenous state that would resist German nationalist ambitions whilst not antagonising the large Soviet state to the East.

Ultimately, Piłsudski’s brand of ‘Greater Polish’ expansionism won the day, leaving Poland dangerously exposed to German aggression which cost Poland dearly during the 1940s

READ MORE: Albania must take a lesson from Poland to avert another Balkan war

What’s more is that Piłsudski’s ambitions were a proximate cause of the Second World War, a war in which Poland suffered greatly.

Piłsudski’s obsession with Russia led him to dismiss threats of German expansionism as well as anti-Polish rhetoric from the fascist regime of Adolf Hitler.

In 1934, Piłsudski’s Foreign Minister Józef Beck helped cement a German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, years before the British engineered Munich Agreement of 1938, let alone the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939.

Although Poland’s attempts to create a new central/eastern European bloc never succeeded, it did accomplish two deeply unhelpful things.

First of all, because Roman Dmowski’s warnings about Germany were ignored, Poland actually sleep-walked into allowing German aggression against Polish lands which by September of 1939 erupted into the proximate cause of the Second World War in Europe.

Secondly, Piłsudski’s ambitions which he continued to promote long after the USSR adopted the anti-imperialist policy of ‘Socialism in One State’, actually helped to drum up support for militant far-right regimes throughout Europe.

Poland was blinded by mutual aggression against Czechoslovakia and mutual loathing of the USSR, that it got in bed with the country that would invade it in 1939, thus formally beginning the Second World War.

2. Britain–1935 and 1938

In 1935, London and Berlin signed the Anglo-German Naval Pact which guaranteed that the tonnage of the Kriegsmarine (Germany Navy) would never exceed 35% percent of that of the Royal Navy (British Navy).

In 1938, Britain and Germany again signed a pact, this time the Munich Agreement in which Britain allowed Hitler to invade and occupy part of Czechoslovakia. Britain of course had no right to to speak on Czechoslovakia’s behalf, giving away the territory of what was the least dictatorial country in central Europe at the time, but this is exactly what Britain did.

3. Romania–1939

The German–Romanian Economic Treaty of 1939 effectively gave Germany control over the entire Romanian economy and consequently the entire Romanian state. Only the Anschluss was a more encompassing treaty.

4. Denmark–1939

In May of 1939 Denmark became the only Scandinavian country to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany. By contrast Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral, although Finland fought the Winter War with the Soviet Union prior to the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War but after the Anglo-French declaration of war on Germany.

5. Italy–1939

In the spring of 1939, Italy signed the so-called ‘Pact of Steel’ with Germany, thus cementing the war time allience of two major fascist powers.

Norway contended itself with a German puppet government run by the infamous Vidkun Quisling

6.  Estonia–1939

On the 7th of June 1939 the Estonian regime of Konstantin Päts, the man who suspended the country’s democracy, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany.

7. Latvia–1939

On the same day as Estonia, Latvia which was then ruled by the proto-fascist dictator Kārlis Ulmanis, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Reich.

By August of 1939, in addition to the aforementioned countries, Hungary, Latvia and  Bulgaria were also firmly in the grip of pro-Nazi governments. By that time all of central and eastern Europe had fascist or far-right governments, with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia. In Southern Europe, the resistance to fascism was led by Hellenic resistance fighters and Yugoslav Partisans led by Tito, the future President of Yugoslavia.

It was only after all of this that the Soviet-Union signed a non-aggression pact with Berlin in August of 1939.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet-Union, thus beginning the Great Patriotic War.

After losing over 27 million people, on the 9th of May 1945, the USSR could rightly say it helped defeated fascism.

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Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Beneš was forced to resign on 5 October 1938, under German pressure. He later fled the German Occupation of Czechoslovakia to England (Although he was a coward and most likely higher ranking freemason).

He was NO Nazi Puppet or authoritarian like the other leaders and countries you mention. Please get your facts straight!

Czechoslovakia was occupied and dismembered by Nazi Germany.

Slovakia was allowed to form a Nazi Puppet Regime under Tiso.

Bohemia and Moravia (Czech lands) were absorbed as a protectorate and under German Nazi Occupation. My relatives and neighbours relatives died under German Occupation of Moravia!

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Lots of people died under German occupation. Most from Typhus. But you ramble on about Czechoslovakia being dismembered by the Germans….WOW….This was German land illegally taken from Germany by Third parties…read that again!!!
Check the lists of all the German speaking Kingdoms/Princedoms and Duchies that united into the German Reich in 1871 which was dismembered BY the Versailles Treaty creating by fiat Czechoslovakia out of thin air and Poland etc. You cannot absorbed a land that belongs to you in the first place. It was German territory.
Dying is not an accomplishment…. It’s part of war.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

My relative and neigbours relatives were executed by the Nazi German Regime, they didn’t just die. It was only “German Land” because of banning and attempting to destroy Czech Language after Czechs/Moravians lost the battle of White Mountain to the so called Holy Roman Empire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_White_Mountain They were still Lands with a majority Czech Speaking and Slavic Population. However with German immigration for 300 years, Germans became the majority in areas called the Sudetenland. This was slow ethnic cleansing and forced assimilation of the Slavic Population by official decree. The Czech Language was forbidden to be used in education, business… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

The Minister/pastor that Christened me in the Netherlands was put against the wall and summarily shot because some young idiot in the resistance thought it was a good idea to kill a German. The Roman Empire did not recognize borders…. Every region has different laguages and cultures. IN the Netherlands which is a small country there is one province called Friesland where people speak Friesian. Their Bible is in Friesian. All Friesian names end in “ma” or “stra” Officially the English language hails from the Dutch and Friesian, Now I do recognize some Dutch words in the old English but… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Facts based on historical record that I posted here, that you wishfully choose to ignore.

We Czechs and Moravians always lived in our lands, (since 8-9th Century) long before the German Speaking Minority arrived in Sudetenland. We did not just magically appear in those lands in 1918 out of nowhere. We were subjugated by the Holy Roman Empire, represented by German Speakers. And BTW we are still living in our lands today, as a majority.

It is actually your “facts” that are based on wishful thinking.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Rastislav Veľká Morav, is the history of Chamberlain’s plot to push Germany eastwards to destroy USSR well known among Czechs? This history is mostly suppressed in western world. If you open a typical book on WWII written by western historians, you won’t find the real reasons for why UK gave into Hitler’s demands in 1938-1939. They will give you garbage propaganda. “And by this date, certain members of the Milner Group and of the British Conservative government had reached the fantastic idea that they could kill two birds with one stone by setting Germany and Russia against one another in… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Bankotsu. Most Czechs,and Moravians believe that they were betrayed for the sake of appeasement. However many do believe that we should of fought and that it was that Government’s cowardice and meek obedience.

What you have written is probably the real truth as Hitler was financed by the Banking Houses and Prescott Bushes, in order to immediately take on the Soviet Union.

Silesians/Moravians in Frydek Mistek were the only ones disobey the orders to stand down after the commanding officer committed suicide.
http://military.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_Czajánek%27s_barracks

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I have researched the topic of pre WWII UK appeasement policy for a long time and what I said above is 100% truth.

There are very few books written in english that tell the truth about UK’s agenda pre WWII. Most of the true history is suppressed. But one of the best books which reveals the truth is Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope:

http://www.carrollquigley.net/books.htm

Read chapters VI and XII for the explainations on why UK pushed Germany eastwards to destroy Soviet Union.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Living in certain areas does not make it a country…You are speaking of ideology/language/culture I am speaking of geography and official boundaries. In 1918 it was summarily decided via the Versailles Treaty to designate out of certain German regions a number of altogether new countries.Czechoslovakia was one of them, regardless of who lived there. All this “my land” did not work out so well for Czechoslovakia did it? Thanks to Vaclav Havel’s wisdom, all the differences between the Czechs and the Slovaks were handled peacefully and they split…So much for the “OUR people” mentality. If you look at the Kurdish… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Vaclav Havel was a member of the Club of Rome, 32 degree Freemason and puppet. He is known as the Humanitarian Bomber of the Serbs, as that is what he called the NATO aggression on Serbia. Why bring his name into this, to muddy the waters? Speaking of the Serbs, they were under the Ottoman Turks for 400 years, occupied by them as we Czechs and Moravians were occupied under German Speaking Roman Catholics for 300 years, who officially abolished the Czech Language and attempted to Germanise us after 1620. The Czechs and Moravian Slavic Speakers were always the overwhelming… Read more »

my2Cents
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my2Cents

There was a rather long response which somehow disappeared.
I really lack the energy or the interest to repeat what I said.
You live in a world of your own creation. Vaclav Havel was a highly respected Poet, Playwrite/Political prisoner/ first President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

“Always seek the company of those who seek God
But of those who have found him
Run as fast as you can.”
Vaclav Havel

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I seem to remember an exchange with you on so called gender identity. You stated how you were proud that the Netherlands Government supports so called “Gender Identity” and that I would be put in jail for my views (actually facts), if I were living there.

I wonder if I wanted to identity as a toddler, horse or another animal, would that be tolerated in the Netherlands,? 🙂

Let’s just leave it at that…The readers can judge, as it is quite clear who is living in a world of its own creation.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Your memory is wrong…I have never discussed the issue of Gender Identity. I HAVE reported that The Netherlands was the first country that accepted same-sex marriages and adoptions and that to that end they changed all official documentation and REMOVED all terminology hat was gender specific, changing it to the neutral term “PARTNER” Which has nothing to do with “Gender Identity”:!!! Artikel 1 of Section 1 of the Dutch Constitution states: “Any discrimination on the basis of Gender, Religion, Race OR Lifestyle is forbidden” I have no idea what views you hold, but if they ARE discriminatory to anyone you… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

There are only two biological genders, which cannot be changed, no matter the amount of surgery and hormone therapy. Therefore to remove gender specific terminology, is lying and misleading. They are only “identifying” as a gender, that they are not, and will never be. Moreover, it seems you are proud of and approve of the Netherlands Legislation that you have described. That is disturbing in in itself. So in that logic you would be a bigot to prevent someone who wants to “identify” as a small child or animal. So the readers can hopefully recognize that you are confused about… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Oh boy, how to deal with the ignorance of religious indoctrination. Is the world still flat? Removing gender specific language leaves in place equal value and equal rights no matter what the public or religious freaks believe it to be. I, for one, could not care less as to who sleeps with whom….Got it.? Your premise that somehow YOU are ENTITLED to judge that issue and implying that those who don’t follow YOUR myopic views are…. what was it bigots? is lunacy And yes, if you lived in the Netherlands and were to openly promote your views you will be… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my judgments but scientific fact! You haven’t stopped with your Pro-German “racist” imperialist drivel on this page so far.
In addition you are putting words into my mouth and bringing religion into this, where I never did. You are mentally sick. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Science has NOTHING to do with how love is experienced, or practiced. Many very old church paintings on wood panels show 2 men marrying. The Greeks practiced it. It is Paulinist teachings that judges it and has indoctrinated weak minded people who are easily manipulated into believing that one sort of people are bad and the others are good by the way they practice LOVE. But it always comes back to sex!! Of course those who judge are always good. YOU have a hang-up on Sex buddy. That too is Paulinist I have encountered people like you before. They are… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. You fail to “tolerate” the fact that Czech, Moravian and Silesian Speaking Slavs always were the majority in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, regardless of Holy Roman German Speaking Catholic Occupation and official persecution. This is based on historical fact with links provided. 2. I repeated a basic scientific fact, that there are only two biological genders. Feelings and misguided man-made laws do not change that. You then hysterically proceed to bring religion and now “gay” people into it, and assume that I have a hang-up on sex. It looks to me like you’re projecting. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

1. Is entirely irrelevant, After the 30 year long religious war between the RC and the Protestants was over it became the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Prussia. That there were different languages is common. To imply that is signifies anything more than that is nonsense. The Religious Roman war was over in 1648 2. No one contests the fact that there are TWO genders… It is the Paulinist indoctrination that this is meant solely for reproduction and that every other activity NOT related to reproductions is therefore a sin and to be condemned,. History is however full… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. They were and are Slavic lands as they contain a Slavic Speaking Majority and they will always be Czech, Moravian, and Silesian Lands, belonging to Slavic People, no matter any occupier, past, present or future. Nothing you can do about it, and no quantity of your written nonsense here will change that fact. Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 to represent that majority, living in its boundaries. 2. There are only two biological genders meaning that every person is designated the gender that they are, from birth. “Identifying” or “feelings” cannot change this in any way. To digress is nonsense.… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Oh, and with your expressed views, you would be tolerated, (but might find yourself being knocked out) in the Czech Republic. I have been to the Netherlands a number of times. And like the rest of the western world, it is regressing. Good luck to them.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_National_Revival Following the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Czech lands experienced Germanisation politics spearheaded by the Habsburg Emperors. The oppression was also connected with religion – up to 95% of the inhabitants of Bohemia were Protestants (See Hussite) when the Habsburgs took power. Although the Habsburgs had promised freedom of religion, they started rampant anti-Reformation and re-Catholization efforts which made most of the Czech elites flee the country. This violent re-Catholization has been suggested to be one of the reasons behind today’s widespread Czech atheism. During the two following centuries the Czech language had been more or less eradicated… Read more »

Constantine
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Constantine

Pretty much correct. I would add that while the Czechoslovak crisis over Sudetenland deepened, there was one country that started making preparations to aid Czechoslovakia and that was the USSR. Still, Benes informed them that he would not opt for war without western support. An interesting detail: Poland vehemently refused to aid Czechoslovakia (as it was about to seize a small chunk of the country) and went so far as to undermine Soviet efforts to support Benes. The US ambassador in Paris, William Bullitt, reported that his Polish counterpart, Lukacsiewicz, told him that Poland would join Germany in the case… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Thank you for that.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Czechoslovakia should have fought in 1938.

USSR and Czechs combined could have won against Germany.

Fero Dibarbora
Guest
Fero Dibarbora

To nase Slovensko nemalo moc na vyber. Ked sapodpisal pakt Polsko-Nemecky pakt, tak MZV vyhlasil, ze Polsko uz sa neciti byt viazane mierovymi dohoodami a v buducnosti ocakava spolocne Polsko Madarske hranice. Ja osobne povazujem Tisov stat, za kolaborantsky, ale taktiez vidim, ze vela inych moznosti nebolo. Bud byt vazalom Nemecka s vlastnym statom, alebo zaniknut pod Polskom a Madarskom. Mimochodom Poliaci zamietli pred Mnichovom mozny presun sovietskych vojsk na pomoc CSR v pripade potreby…

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Souhlas.

btheist
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btheist
Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Immediately after Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia, Poland used the opportunity to invade Czech Territory and took all of Czech Silesia for themselves.

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Typical czechist crap😂 And in 1919 the same territory including half of a Free City Cieszyn was invaded by Marsians and after killing ca 3000 Polish defendants and locals it was gifted to masonic project called czechoslovakia which soon after invaded (with a help from Mars 😆) ethnic Hungarian territory to expand eastern borders of its pseudo state (which is no more😂after another German-led split some 22 years back)! And in 1939 they took 6 year mental vacation (but industry full steem for German war effort) with German pseudo occupation (protectorate indeed😎) and in May 1945 had a week of… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Totally and factually wrong diarrhea.

You Russophobic Jesuit and Vatican Controlled Useful Idiot Polish Government think that we Czechs, Moravians and Slovakians are really Poles and should join you.

Never going to happen!

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Join who? GERMAN vomit?😂😂😂

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

We are Slavs, different than Poles, where it has been proven that the Ashkenazi (ie: Khazarian) Haplogroup is very prevalent.

We will not join any sort of Comedic Fantasy Empire Projects of Poles,like the current reiteration, so called Three Seas Initiative.

We are moving towards Russia along with Hungary.

Walter Dublanica
Member
Walter Dublanica

Good that Slavs join up with each other. What is the Haplogroup?

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Genetic Haplogroups of Poles have heavy Ashkenazi (Khazar) Concentrations.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You talk absolute nonsense.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Silesia was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and was German.
The Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Silesia was conquered by Prussia only in 1742.

It originated in 8th-9th century and was part of the Great Moravian Empire with majority Slavic Speaking population up until today.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

And the U.S. belonged to the Native Indians and a war between Britain and “other colonial immigrants” took place after which in 1776 the immigrant elite declared American independence and the genocide of the Natives became legal.
Should the world do something about that, you think?
In the 8th-9th century most people could neither read nor write so the “writing” was done by interested parties, which had little if anything to do with any reality.
But keep dreaming your ideology.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Yes the only way to take the territory is to completely wipe out the original culture and language of the subjugated people and become the majority, leaving no trace.
This did not happen in Silesia, Slavs remain the majority.
Therefore there are only two conclusions: You are trolling poorly, or you are simply stupid.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

After France, Great Britain and the Nazis carved Czechoslovakia in 1938. Italy, Austria, Spain, Romania , the Baltics, were all Hitler’s allies. The United States waited until December 1941 to declare war to Germany (they even had a pro-Hitler ambassador in UK – Joe Kennedy Sr.). It was then clear to the Soviet Union, that US and the rest of Europe DID NOT want to fight against Hitler. So the pact of non-aggression signed with Germany, was only logical. Less than two years later, on June 22, 1941, Hitler broke the pact (which he never intended to respect) and invaded… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Another Einstein! roll eyes

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

“CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech
politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of
his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely
authoritarian rule.”

Don’t think that correct. Benes’ rule was a largely democratic rule.

Czechoslovakia was one of the most democratic and least repressive states in europe during 1920s, 30s.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I think this article forgot the 1938 German-French treaty.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

Exactly. And the Anschluss, the occupation of Austria, in 1938 too.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

ahum…..Daisy…..After the 3 year miraculous recovery IN Germany after its total destruction in WW1. Having been entirely broken up…The Austrians who were still struggling after WW1 and the depression BEGGED Germany to allow it to join it. That is what Anschluss means…It means JOINING….There was NO occupation and every Austrian young man became part of the German army…..I know this because the Dutch resistance brought us a Austrian deserter with a death sentence on his head. He became my uncle. I am still in touch with his children in Vienna. “The Sound of Music” and the von Trapp family was… Read more »

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

“Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral”

“Neutral” , my foot. Sweden provided nazi Germany it the iron ore, necessary to the weapons industry, and even had its own SS brigade of 11,000 voluntaries, who fought against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. As “neutral” as Switzeland , which sheltered in its banks’ coffers the gold and artworks stolen by the nazis.

Ivan Grozny
Guest
Ivan Grozny

Also, little known but a fact – Sweden allowed the transfer of soldiers, including their weapons, by train, from the south all the way to the northern border with Norway!

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Tragedy of Czechoslovakia was that in September 1938, by most estimates, it had a more powerful military than Germany. It should have fought in 1938.

But UK under Chamberlain had a completely different agenda of pushing Germany eastwards to destroy USSR.

http://www.yamaguchy.com/library/quigley/anglo_12b.html

“Dr. Quigley explains how Nazi Germany seized a stronger Czechoslovakia”

http://www.carrollquigley.net/misc/Quigley_explains_how_Germany_conquered_Czechoslovakia.htm

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Czechoslovakia was until 1918 the German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia. So after the German Empire was created by unifying all these German Kingdoms etc into one large country called Germany in 1871 Britain/France and the U.S have done nothing but try to break up this German Reich. Germany did not create WW1 nor WW2. Britain/France and the US did. The Versailles Treaty chopped up Germany and Poland was created from the Kingdom of Prussia. and the Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s aim was to restore Germany as much as possible. Now why would the Germans in Czechoslovakia fight against… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

It was only German Speaking because of attempted official Vatican Jesuit eradication of Czech Language since the defeat at the battle of White Mountain.

The Czech Hussites should have adopted the imperial mindset of the Anglo Saxon and German Western Mentality when they conquered up to part of Germany, but did not stay.
This is typical of Slavs, as we just want to be left in peace to live and prosper.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Whatever….go ahead make up your own history.
Who’s we…Poland?
Who’s THEY “conquered up part of Germany but did not stay”?
You giving me brain cramp here.
Seems your brain goes way faster than your fingers. And while I am sure you have some coherent thoughts in your head they do not appear in these pages.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I Stated “Slavs” and then “we” as I am one, so are the Czechs, and so were the Hussites, in my last comment

I Stated “Hussites” and then referred to them as “they” in my last comment.

It seems you have a reading comprehension issue, responding to something you only imagined to have actually read.

There is no made up history in my comment, just fact, that apparently doesn’t support your particular beliefs, as per your previous comment.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Resorting to Local names does not help your cause. The Check Hussites did not conquer Germany. Czechoslovakia was the Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918 whether you like it or not. So Czechoslovakia was an artificial country that rightfully was part of Germany since 1871 and was illegally cut off from /Germany by the Versailles Treaty. So to speak of Hitler occupying Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) is absurd. Hussites are a local form of Christianity and why that should have entered into this discussion beats me. Hitler’s aim was to reunite German land with Germany… After WW2 there was whole scale ethnic cleaning… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my cause, but Historical Facts.
Thanks to the Hussites which were Czech Slavic National resistance to Roman Catholics and German Speakers. For two centuries Czech and Moravian Lands were free and Czech Speaking, thanks to the Hussites.
It wasn’t until 1620 when the Holy Roman Empire won the battle of White Mountain, that forced an official Germanization Policy, German immigration began and Czech Language was banned.

Your failure to comprehend is because of your reading comprehension issues, detailed for you in my last comment.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Campaigns of 1426 and 1427 (fourth anti-Hussite Crusade): In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. The Hussites subsequently invaded… Read more »

Constantine
Guest
Constantine

Czechoslovakia was not part of Germany, but of Austria-Hungary. The German minority region was the Sudeten borderland. The rest of the country wasn’t German speaking. And despite Nazi claims, the Czechoslovak authorities did not oppress the Germans. As for the Versailles Treaty, one may debate whether it was harsh or not. But it wasn’t illegal, since the Germans lost the war. Considering the far more draconian terms that the Germans imposed upon Russia in Brest-Litovsk – while they were under pressure to make peace in the east as soon as possible – one can only imagine what they had in… Read more »

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I’ll go with Quigley.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

That’s because you did not survive that war while I did.

The Narrator
Guest
The Narrator

NOOOOO IT’S THE FAULT OF THE PERSON WHO SHOT ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND! and the first people who declared war are the Brits and French!

samo war
Guest
samo war

adolffH was cia project ?

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

What a mega dose of horse shit this Russian propaganda article is😂😆😈 Bolshevics were not once but twice saved from total wipe out under combined Polish army and remnants of zarist armies in 1919 and in 1920 only because prusso-Germany was able to influence not just Piłsudski but also Dmowski!!! Moscow would have been cleared in days if the offensive were not stopped! Had Polish forces joined on either occasion with white Russians, Moscow would now be a provincial city in central Russia totally devoid of bolshevia scum which has infested that city and continues to produce such propaganda as… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You’ve got your dates screwed up….The Tsar was dead in 1918 and Prussia had become Poland as per the Versailles Treaty in 1917 which broke up Germany. Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Let me remind you that it was the Soviets that decimated the German Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, at the cost of 27 million Russian lives. THEY won the war. It was only 2.5 years later that the allies landed in Normandy for the mop up action and to make sure the Soviets would not overrun the whole of Europe. THEY preferred to do that themselves. Poland is an artificial country. In… Read more »

Vera Gottlieb
Guest
Vera Gottlieb

Wasn’t WW 1 to be the war to end all wars? And we are still not done with wars and more wars.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Adam you forgot Bulgaria, a German Nazi Ally.
Could it be to not offend the sensibilities of your friend, Nedka?

That being said I appreciate your well written articles and thinking, and your interviews with Nedka.
You are however Factually wrong here in this article, about Czechoslovakia.

Bessarabyn
Guest
Bessarabyn

Thanks. One correction : ” resistance to fascism was ” first led by the monarchist Serb General Mihailovitsch with brave allyugoslav men (and women) until treacherous Albion cut them off and sent all armaments nand supplies to the communist Croat Tito . He wrote : > I have outsmarted and deceived that old fox Churchill <. It was the Oxfordian armchair socialist poofters and the NWO servant Churchill himself who killed the strongest opposition on the Balkans. They then dismantled the state of Yugoslavia and of Serbia. caused the death of 250 000 human beings , created fake "states" and… Read more »

Latest

The ‘Gilets Jaunes’ Are Unstoppable: “Now, The Elites Are Afraid”

Now the elites are afraid. For the first time, there is a movement which cannot be controlled through the normal political mechanisms.

The Duran

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Authored by Christophe Guilluy via Spiked-Online.com:


The gilets jaunes (yellow vest) movement has rattled the French establishment. For several months, crowds ranging from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands have been taking to the streets every weekend across the whole of France. They have had enormous success, extracting major concessions from the government. They continue to march.

Back in 2014, geographer Christopher Guilluy’s study of la France périphérique (peripheral France) caused a media sensation. It drew attention to the economic, cultural and political exclusion of the working classes, most of whom now live outside the major cities. It highlighted the conditions that would later give rise to the yellow-vest phenomenon. Guilluy has developed on these themes in his recent books, No Society and The Twilight of the Elite: Prosperity, the Periphery and the Future of Francespiked caught up with Guilluy to get his view on the causes and consequences of the yellow-vest movement.

spiked: What exactly do you mean by ‘peripheral France’?

Christophe Guilluy: ‘Peripheral France’ is about the geographic distribution of the working classes across France. Fifteen years ago, I noticed that the majority of working-class people actually live very far away from the major globalised cities – far from Paris, Lyon and Toulouse, and also very far from London and New York.

Technically, our globalised economic model performs well. It produces a lot of wealth. But it doesn’t need the majority of the population to function. It has no real need for the manual workers, labourers and even small-business owners outside of the big cities. Paris creates enough wealth for the whole of France, and London does the same in Britain. But you cannot build a society around this. The gilets jaunes is a revolt of the working classes who live in these places.

They tend to be people in work, but who don’t earn very much, between 1000€ and 2000€ per month. Some of them are very poor if they are unemployed. Others were once middle-class. What they all have in common is that they live in areas where there is hardly any work left. They know that even if they have a job today, they could lose it tomorrow and they won’t find anything else.

spiked: What is the role of culture in the yellow-vest movement?

Guilluy: Not only does peripheral France fare badly in the modern economy, it is also culturally misunderstood by the elite. The yellow-vest movement is a truly 21st-century movement in that it is cultural as well as political. Cultural validation is extremely important in our era.

One illustration of this cultural divide is that most modern, progressive social movements and protests are quickly endorsed by celebrities, actors, the media and the intellectuals. But none of them approve of the gilets jaunes. Their emergence has caused a kind of psychological shock to the cultural establishment. It is exactly the same shock that the British elites experienced with the Brexit vote and that they are still experiencing now, three years later.

The Brexit vote had a lot to do with culture, too, I think. It was more than just the question of leaving the EU. Many voters wanted to remind the political class that they exist. That’s what French people are using the gilets jaunes for – to say we exist. We are seeing the same phenomenon in populist revolts across the world.

spiked: How have the working-classes come to be excluded?

Guilluy: All the growth and dynamism is in the major cities, but people cannot just move there. The cities are inaccessible, particularly thanks to mounting housing costs. The big cities today are like medieval citadels. It is like we are going back to the city-states of the Middle Ages. Funnily enough, Paris is going to start charging people for entry, just like the excise duties you used to have to pay to enter a town in the Middle Ages.

The cities themselves have become very unequal, too. The Parisian economy needs executives and qualified professionals. It also needs workers, predominantly immigrants, for the construction industry and catering et cetera. Business relies on this very specific demographic mix. The problem is that ‘the people’ outside of this still exist. In fact, ‘Peripheral France’ actually encompasses the majority of French people.

spiked: What role has the liberal metropolitan elite played in this?

Guilluy: We have a new bourgeoisie, but because they are very cool and progressive, it creates the impression that there is no class conflict anymore. It is really difficult to oppose the hipsters when they say they care about the poor and about minorities.

But actually, they are very much complicit in relegating the working classes to the sidelines. Not only do they benefit enormously from the globalised economy, but they have also produced a dominant cultural discourse which ostracises working-class people. Think of the ‘deplorables’ evoked by Hillary Clinton. There is a similar view of the working class in France and Britain. They are looked upon as if they are some kind of Amazonian tribe. The problem for the elites is that it is a very big tribe.

The middle-class reaction to the yellow vests has been telling. Immediately, the protesters were denounced as xenophobes, anti-Semites and homophobes. The elites present themselves as anti-fascist and anti-racist but this is merely a way of defending their class interests. It is the only argument they can muster to defend their status, but it is not working anymore.

Now the elites are afraid. For the first time, there is a movement which cannot be controlled through the normal political mechanisms. The gilets jaunes didn’t emerge from the trade unions or the political parties. It cannot be stopped. There is no ‘off’ button. Either the intelligentsia will be forced to properly acknowledge the existence of these people, or they will have to opt for a kind of soft totalitarianism.

A lot has been made of the fact that the yellow vests’ demands vary a great deal. But above all, it’s a demand for democracy. Fundamentally, they are democrats – they want to be taken seriously and they want to be integrated into the economic order.

spiked: How can we begin to address these demands?

Guilluy: First of all, the bourgeoisie needs a cultural revolution, particularly in universities and in the media. They need to stop insulting the working class, to stop thinking of all the gilets jaunes as imbeciles.

Cultural respect is fundamental: there will be no economic or political integration until there is cultural integration. Then, of course, we need to think differently about the economy. That means dispensing with neoliberal dogma. We need to think beyond Paris, London and New York.

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US Blunders Have Made Russia The Global Trade Pivot

Even if Europe is somehow taken out of the trade equation, greater synergy between the RIC (Russia, India and China) nations may be enough to pull their nations through anticipated global volatilities ahead

The Duran

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Authored by Mathew Maavak via ActivistPost.com:


The year 2019 had barely begun before news emerged that six Russian sailors were kidnapped by pirates off the coast of Benin. It was perhaps a foretaste of risks to come. As nations reel from deteriorating economic conditions, instances of piracy and other forms of supply chain disruptions are bound to increase.

According to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB), 107 cases of piracy were noted during the first half of 2018 vis-à-vis 87 throughout 2017.  The 2018 tally included 32 cases in Southeast Asian waters and 48 along African shores – representing 75% of the total. To put this figure into perspective, Asian behemoths India and China – despite their vast shorelines – recorded only 2 cases of piracy each during the study period. Russia had none. In terms of hostages taken, the IMB tally read 102 in H1 2018 vs 63 in H1 2017.

Piracy adds to shipping and retail costs worldwide as security, insurance and salaries are hiked to match associated risks in maritime transport. Merchant vessels will also take longer and costlier routes to avoid piracy hotspots.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) report in 2016 sums up the perils ahead:

As over 90% of global trade is carried out by sea, the economic effects of maritime crime can be crippling. Maritime crime includes not only criminal activity directed at vessels or maritime structures, but also the use of the high seas to perpetrate transnational organized crimes such as smuggling of persons or illicit substances.  These forms of maritime crime can have devastating human consequences.

Indeed, cases of human trafficking, organ harvesting, and the smuggling of illicit substances and counterfeit goods are proliferating worldwide in tandem with rising systemic debt and suspect international agendas.

Australia offers a case in point. While it fantasizes over a Quad of allies in the Indo-Pacific – to “save Asians from China” – criminal elements from Hong Kong, Malaysia to squeaky-clean Singapore have been routinely trafficking drugs, tobacco and people right into Sydney harbour for years,  swelling the local organised crime economy to as much as $47.4 billion (Australian dollars presumably) between 2016 and 2017.

With criminal elements expected to thrive during a severe recession, they will likely enjoy a degree of prosecutorial shielding from state actors and local politicians. But this is not a Southeast Asian problem alone; any superpower wishing to disrupt Asia-Europe trade arteries – the main engine of global growth – will have targets of opportunity across oceans and lands.  The US-led war against Syria had not only cratered one potential trans-Eurasia energy and trade node, it served as a boon for child traffickingorgan harvesting and slavery as well. Yet, it is President Bashar al-Assad who is repeatedly labelled a “butcher” by the Anglo-American media.

Ultimately, industries in Asia and Europe will seek safer transit routes for their products. The inference here is inevitable: the greatest logistical undertaking in history – China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) – will be highly dependent on Russian security umbrella, particularly in Central Asia. Russia also offers an alternative transit option via the Northern Sea Route, thereby avoiding any potential pan-Turkic ructions in Central Asia in the future.

Russo- and Sinophobia explained?

In retrospect, Washington’s reckless policies post-Sept 11 2001 seem aimed at disrupting growing synergies between Asia and Europe. This hypothesis helps explain the relentless US-led agitprops against Russia, China and Iran.

When the gilet jaunes (yellow vest) protests rocked France weeks ago, it was only a matter of time before some pundits blamed it on Russia. US President Donald J. Trump cheered on; just as “billionaire activist” George Soros celebrated the refugee invasion of Europe and the Arab Spring earlier.  If the yellow vest contagion spreads to the Western half of Europe, its economies will flounder. Cui bono? A Russia that can reap benefits from the two-way BRI or Arctic trade routes or a moribund United States that can no longer rule roost in an increasingly multipolar world?

Trump’s diplomatic downgrade of the European Union and his opposition to the Nord Stream 2gas pipeline matches this trade-disruption hypothesis, as do pressures applied on India and China to drop energy and trade ties with Iran.  Washington’s trade war with Beijing and recent charges against Huawei – arguably Asia’s most valuable company – seem to fit this grand strategy.

If China concedes to importing more US products, Europe will bear the consequences. Asians love European products ranging from German cars to Italian shoes and Europe remains the favourite vacation destination for its growing middle class. Eastern European products and institutions are also beginning to gain traction in Asia. However, these emerging economies will suffer if their leaders cave in to Washington’s bogeyman fetish.

Even if Europe is somehow taken out of the trade equation, greater synergy between the RIC (Russia, India and China) nations may be enough – at least theoretically – to pull their nations through anticipated global volatilities ahead.

In the meantime, as the US-led world crumbles, it looks like Russia is patiently biding its time to become the security guarantor and kingmaker of Asia-Europe trade.  A possible state of affairs wrought more by American inanity rather than Russian ingenuity…

Dr Mathew Maavak is a regular commentator on risk-related geostrategic issues.

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Historic Eastern Christianity: An Uncertain Future

The survival of historic Eastern Christianity, particularly in Syria, is critical for several reasons.

Strategic Culture Foundation

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Authored by Elias Samo via The Strategic Culture Foundation:


The survival of historic Eastern Christianity has never been as urgent as it is today. Christianity saw its beginning in Greater Syria which was subdivided by France and Britain after WWI into modern day Syria, Lebanon, Palestian/Israel and Jordan. The land that housed, nurtured and spread the teachings of Jesus Christ for over two millenniums, now threatens children of that faith. The survival of historic Eastern Christianity, particularly in Syria, is critical for several reasons:

  1. Greater Syria is the homeland of Jesus and Christianity. Abraham was from modern day Iraq, Moses from Egypt, and Muhammad from Mecca; Jesus was from Syria.
  1. Paul converted to Christianity and saw the light while walking through ‘The Street Called Straight’ in Damascus.
  1. Jesus’ followers were called Christians for the first time in Antioch, formerly part of Syria.
  1. One of the earliest churches, perhaps the earliest, is in Syria.

The potential demise of historic Eastern Christianity is reflected in the key question Christians ask: should we stay or emigrate? The urgent question – in the face of the ongoing regional turmoil – precipitated with the American invasion of Iraq in 2003 and escalated since the Arab uprisings in 2011. Historic Eastern Christians’ fears were further magnified when Archbishop Yohanna Ibrahim of the Syriac Orthodox Church and Archbishop Paul Yazigi of the Greek Orthodox Church, both of metropolitan Aleppo, were kidnapped on April, 22, 2013; with no traces of their whereabouts, dead or alive, since. For many years, I was deputy, friend, and advisor to the Archbishop Ibrahim, which provided me an opportunity to meet many Christians. I have, over time, noticed the change in their sentiment, with more considering emigration after the uprising and the kidnapping of the two Archbishops. Historic Eastern Christians survived the Ottoman Genocide in 1915 and thereafter; they multiplied and thrived in the Fertile Crescent despite some atrocities until the start of the misnamed “Arab Spring” in early 2011. Prior to the “Arab Spring”, historic Eastern Christians were victims of violence on several occasions. In the mid-1930s, the historic Assyrian community in Iraq suffered violent onslaughts and were driven to Syria. In the 1970s and 1980s, during the Lebanese Civil War, Christians were victims of sectarian violence. During the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, Christians were victims of widespread sectarian violence which led to mass migration. The “Arab Spring” began with great hope for the right of the people to “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”. However, it was swiftly hijacked by Islamists and Salafists and turned into an “Islamic Spring, an Arab Fall and a Christian Winter”; bringing along with it a new massacre of Christians. Presently, Eastern Christianity is at the mercy of clear and identifiable domestic, regional, and international, historic and contemporary conflicts in the Fertile Crescent, namely:

  1. Jihad vs. Ijtihad: A long standing conflict amongst Muslims between the sword vs. the pen.
  2. Sunni vs. Shiite: A conflict which began following the death of the Prophet Muhammad.
  3. Arabism vs. Islamism: The former has territorial limitations, the later has no territorial limitations.
  4. Syria vs. Israel: It is an essential component of the Palestinian problem, not the presumed Arab- Israeli conflict.
  5. West vs. East: A throwback to the Cold War, or its revival.
  6. Historic Persian, Ottoman and Arab Empires animosities: Each seeking regional hegemony.

One is reminded of the proverbial saying, “When the elephants fight, the grass suffers.” Certainly, Eastern Christianity is suffering and threatened with extinction.

Syria was a model of religious tolerance, common living and peaceful interaction amongst its religious, sectarian, cultural and ethnic components. Seven years of turmoil, in which various international and regional powers manipulated segments of Syrian society by supplying them with an abundance of weapons, money and sectarian ideologies, has heightened Eastern Christians’ fears. During the seven-year turmoil in Syria, the entire society has suffered; Sunnis, Shiites, Alawites, Yazidis, Kurds, Christians and others. Christians, being a weak and peaceful component of the society, have suffered immensely. Ma’aloula; a religious treasure for Christians globally, and the only city in the world where Aramaic – the language of Jesus Christ – is spoken, was attacked and besieged by ISIS. Numerous historic Churches were damaged, and many destroyed. Christians in Raqqa were forced by ISIS into one of three options: 1. Pay a penalty in pure gold – known as a ‘Jizya’ to keep their life and practice their faith – albeit in secret only; 2. Convert into Islam; or 3. Face immediate death. To top their pain, the kidnap of the two prominent Archbishops meant no Eastern Christian believer was safe.

Amidst all the doom and gloom, however, there remains hope. The survival of Christianity depends on the actions and reactions of three parties:

Eastern Christians: During the last hundred years, 1915-2015, since the Ottoman Genocide, Eastern Christians have been victims of a history of massacres, which meant that every Eastern Christian was a martyr, a potential martyr or a witness of martyrdom; if you fool me once, shame on you, if you fool me twice, shame on me. The ongoing regional turmoil has heightened their sense of insecurity. The answer to an age-old question Eastern Christians had on their mind: To flee Westwards or remain in their land, in the face of death, is increasingly becoming the former.

Eastern Muslims: There is a difference in perceptions between Eastern Christians and mainstream Muslims regarding the massacres committed against Christians. When certain violent groups or individuals kill Christians, while shouting a traditional Islamic profession: “No God but one God and Muhammad is God’s messenger”, it is reasonable for Christians to assume the killers are Muslims. However, for mainstream Muslims, the killers do not represent Islam; they are extremists, violating basic Islamic norms such as Muhammad’s sayings, “Whoever hurts a Thummy – Christian or Jew – has hurt me”, “no compulsion in religion” and other Islamic norms regarding just treatment of people of the Book; Christians and Jews. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the Muslim elites to impress upon their fellow Muslims that:

a. The three monotheistic religions believe in one God and all ‘faithfuls’ are equal in citizenship, rights and duties.

b. Christians participated in the rise of Arab Islamic civilization. They were pioneers in the modern Arab renaissance and they joined their Muslim brethren in resisting the Crusades, the Ottomans and Western colonialism.

c. Christians are natives of the land and they provide cultural, religious, educational, and economic, diversity.

d. Christians are a positive link between the Muslims and the Christian West, particularly in view of the rise of Islamophobia. Massacres of Christians and their migration provide a pretext for the further precipitation of Islamophobia.

e. Civilization is measured by the way it treats its minorities.

The Christian West: The Crusades, Western colonialism, creation and continued support of Israel, support of authoritarian Arab political systems, military interventions, regime change, and the destabilization of Arab states made Muslims view Eastern Christians ‘guilty by association’. The Christian West helped Jews come to Palestine to establish Israel. Shouldn’t the same Christian West also help Eastern Christians remain in their homeland, rather than facilitate their emigration? Western Christians, particularly Christian Zionists, believe that the existence of Israel is necessary for the return of Jesus to his homeland. However, it would be a great disappointment for Jesus to return to his homeland, Syria and not find any of his followers.

Prior to 2011, Eastern Christian religious leaders were encouraging Syrian Christians in the diaspora to return to Syria, their homeland, where life was safe and secure with great potential. Now, the same leaders are desperately trying to slow down Christian emigration. Eastern Christians’ loud cries for help to remain are blowing in the wind.

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