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7 non-aggression pacts and treaties signed by European countries with Nazi Germany

The interwar period was not one of democracies versus dictatorships, it was one of an ultra-right, fascist central and eastern Europe against an isolated Soviet Union.

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The inter-war period of Europe was not one of burgeoning democracies formed from the ashes of the First World War, but rather, central and Europe were countries that were overwhelmingly far-right dictatorship.

These are just some examples:

HUNGARY: In the interwar years, Hungary was ruled by an ultra-reactionary government most prominently by Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös. 

LATVIA: Latvian dictator Kārlis Ulmanis ruled with an iron far-right fist throughout the interwar years. 

LITHUANIA: Interwar Lithuanian leader Antanas Smetona helped push the country further and further to the proto-fascist right. 

ESTONIA: Konstantin Päts was something of a softer but still strongly nationalist dictator who effectively killed off democracy

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely authoritarian rule. 

And then there was Poland, a country who under the strongman military rule of Józef Piłsudski was the first European power to sign a bilateral non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler, four years prior to the unification of Hitler’s Germany with Austria in the Anschluss.

Here is a list of all the European powers that signed non-aggression pacts with Nazi Germany prior to August of 1939.

1. Poland–1934

The Second Polish Republic was dominated by two political rivals, Józef Piłsudski and Roman Dmowski. Although both figures are venerated in contemporary Poland, each man had a radically different idea about what Poland ought to be.

Józef Piłsudski called for a ‘greater Poland’ which would encompass much of the territory of the once vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which once dominated central and Eastern Europe.

Piłsudski was stridently anti-Russian whilst he totally underestimated and even discounted the coming German threat.

He sought to build a right-wing European federation which would rival and dominate the neighbouring Soviet Union. It was this policy which allowed his country to sleepwalk into the Polish-Soviet War which lasted from 1919-1921. It was Europe’s most protracted conflict of the inter-world war period….

…By contrast, Roman Dmowski favoured the settled post-First World War Polish borders and sought an ethnically and culturally homogenous state that would resist German nationalist ambitions whilst not antagonising the large Soviet state to the East.

Ultimately, Piłsudski’s brand of ‘Greater Polish’ expansionism won the day, leaving Poland dangerously exposed to German aggression which cost Poland dearly during the 1940s

READ MORE: Albania must take a lesson from Poland to avert another Balkan war

What’s more is that Piłsudski’s ambitions were a proximate cause of the Second World War, a war in which Poland suffered greatly.

Piłsudski’s obsession with Russia led him to dismiss threats of German expansionism as well as anti-Polish rhetoric from the fascist regime of Adolf Hitler.

In 1934, Piłsudski’s Foreign Minister Józef Beck helped cement a German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, years before the British engineered Munich Agreement of 1938, let alone the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939.

Although Poland’s attempts to create a new central/eastern European bloc never succeeded, it did accomplish two deeply unhelpful things.

First of all, because Roman Dmowski’s warnings about Germany were ignored, Poland actually sleep-walked into allowing German aggression against Polish lands which by September of 1939 erupted into the proximate cause of the Second World War in Europe.

Secondly, Piłsudski’s ambitions which he continued to promote long after the USSR adopted the anti-imperialist policy of ‘Socialism in One State’, actually helped to drum up support for militant far-right regimes throughout Europe.

Poland was blinded by mutual aggression against Czechoslovakia and mutual loathing of the USSR, that it got in bed with the country that would invade it in 1939, thus formally beginning the Second World War.

2. Britain–1935 and 1938

In 1935, London and Berlin signed the Anglo-German Naval Pact which guaranteed that the tonnage of the Kriegsmarine (Germany Navy) would never exceed 35% percent of that of the Royal Navy (British Navy).

In 1938, Britain and Germany again signed a pact, this time the Munich Agreement in which Britain allowed Hitler to invade and occupy part of Czechoslovakia. Britain of course had no right to to speak on Czechoslovakia’s behalf, giving away the territory of what was the least dictatorial country in central Europe at the time, but this is exactly what Britain did.

3. Romania–1939

The German–Romanian Economic Treaty of 1939 effectively gave Germany control over the entire Romanian economy and consequently the entire Romanian state. Only the Anschluss was a more encompassing treaty.

4. Denmark–1939

In May of 1939 Denmark became the only Scandinavian country to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany. By contrast Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral, although Finland fought the Winter War with the Soviet Union prior to the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War but after the Anglo-French declaration of war on Germany.

5. Italy–1939

In the spring of 1939, Italy signed the so-called ‘Pact of Steel’ with Germany, thus cementing the war time allience of two major fascist powers.

Norway contended itself with a German puppet government run by the infamous Vidkun Quisling

6.  Estonia–1939

On the 7th of June 1939 the Estonian regime of Konstantin Päts, the man who suspended the country’s democracy, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany.

7. Latvia–1939

On the same day as Estonia, Latvia which was then ruled by the proto-fascist dictator Kārlis Ulmanis, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Reich.

By August of 1939, in addition to the aforementioned countries, Hungary, Latvia and  Bulgaria were also firmly in the grip of pro-Nazi governments. By that time all of central and eastern Europe had fascist or far-right governments, with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia. In Southern Europe, the resistance to fascism was led by Hellenic resistance fighters and Yugoslav Partisans led by Tito, the future President of Yugoslavia.

It was only after all of this that the Soviet-Union signed a non-aggression pact with Berlin in August of 1939.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet-Union, thus beginning the Great Patriotic War.

After losing over 27 million people, on the 9th of May 1945, the USSR could rightly say it helped defeated fascism.

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Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Beneš was forced to resign on 5 October 1938, under German pressure. He later fled the German Occupation of Czechoslovakia to England (Although he was a coward and most likely higher ranking freemason).

He was NO Nazi Puppet or authoritarian like the other leaders and countries you mention. Please get your facts straight!

Czechoslovakia was occupied and dismembered by Nazi Germany.

Slovakia was allowed to form a Nazi Puppet Regime under Tiso.

Bohemia and Moravia (Czech lands) were absorbed as a protectorate and under German Nazi Occupation. My relatives and neighbours relatives died under German Occupation of Moravia!

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Lots of people died under German occupation. Most from Typhus. But you ramble on about Czechoslovakia being dismembered by the Germans….WOW….This was German land illegally taken from Germany by Third parties…read that again!!!
Check the lists of all the German speaking Kingdoms/Princedoms and Duchies that united into the German Reich in 1871 which was dismembered BY the Versailles Treaty creating by fiat Czechoslovakia out of thin air and Poland etc. You cannot absorbed a land that belongs to you in the first place. It was German territory.
Dying is not an accomplishment…. It’s part of war.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

My relative and neigbours relatives were executed by the Nazi German Regime, they didn’t just die. It was only “German Land” because of banning and attempting to destroy Czech Language after Czechs/Moravians lost the battle of White Mountain to the so called Holy Roman Empire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_White_Mountain They were still Lands with a majority Czech Speaking and Slavic Population. However with German immigration for 300 years, Germans became the majority in areas called the Sudetenland. This was slow ethnic cleansing and forced assimilation of the Slavic Population by official decree. The Czech Language was forbidden to be used in education, business… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

The Minister/pastor that Christened me in the Netherlands was put against the wall and summarily shot because some young idiot in the resistance thought it was a good idea to kill a German. The Roman Empire did not recognize borders…. Every region has different laguages and cultures. IN the Netherlands which is a small country there is one province called Friesland where people speak Friesian. Their Bible is in Friesian. All Friesian names end in “ma” or “stra” Officially the English language hails from the Dutch and Friesian, Now I do recognize some Dutch words in the old English but… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Facts based on historical record that I posted here, that you wishfully choose to ignore.

We Czechs and Moravians always lived in our lands, (since 8-9th Century) long before the German Speaking Minority arrived in Sudetenland. We did not just magically appear in those lands in 1918 out of nowhere. We were subjugated by the Holy Roman Empire, represented by German Speakers. And BTW we are still living in our lands today, as a majority.

It is actually your “facts” that are based on wishful thinking.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Rastislav Veľká Morav, is the history of Chamberlain’s plot to push Germany eastwards to destroy USSR well known among Czechs? This history is mostly suppressed in western world. If you open a typical book on WWII written by western historians, you won’t find the real reasons for why UK gave into Hitler’s demands in 1938-1939. They will give you garbage propaganda. “And by this date, certain members of the Milner Group and of the British Conservative government had reached the fantastic idea that they could kill two birds with one stone by setting Germany and Russia against one another in… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Bankotsu. Most Czechs,and Moravians believe that they were betrayed for the sake of appeasement. However many do believe that we should of fought and that it was that Government’s cowardice and meek obedience.

What you have written is probably the real truth as Hitler was financed by the Banking Houses and Prescott Bushes, in order to immediately take on the Soviet Union.

Silesians/Moravians in Frydek Mistek were the only ones disobey the orders to stand down after the commanding officer committed suicide.
http://military.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_Czajánek%27s_barracks

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I have researched the topic of pre WWII UK appeasement policy for a long time and what I said above is 100% truth.

There are very few books written in english that tell the truth about UK’s agenda pre WWII. Most of the true history is suppressed. But one of the best books which reveals the truth is Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope:

http://www.carrollquigley.net/books.htm

Read chapters VI and XII for the explainations on why UK pushed Germany eastwards to destroy Soviet Union.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Living in certain areas does not make it a country…You are speaking of ideology/language/culture I am speaking of geography and official boundaries. In 1918 it was summarily decided via the Versailles Treaty to designate out of certain German regions a number of altogether new countries.Czechoslovakia was one of them, regardless of who lived there. All this “my land” did not work out so well for Czechoslovakia did it? Thanks to Vaclav Havel’s wisdom, all the differences between the Czechs and the Slovaks were handled peacefully and they split…So much for the “OUR people” mentality. If you look at the Kurdish… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Vaclav Havel was a member of the Club of Rome, 32 degree Freemason and puppet. He is known as the Humanitarian Bomber of the Serbs, as that is what he called the NATO aggression on Serbia. Why bring his name into this, to muddy the waters? Speaking of the Serbs, they were under the Ottoman Turks for 400 years, occupied by them as we Czechs and Moravians were occupied under German Speaking Roman Catholics for 300 years, who officially abolished the Czech Language and attempted to Germanise us after 1620. The Czechs and Moravian Slavic Speakers were always the overwhelming… Read more »

my2Cents
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my2Cents

There was a rather long response which somehow disappeared.
I really lack the energy or the interest to repeat what I said.
You live in a world of your own creation. Vaclav Havel was a highly respected Poet, Playwrite/Political prisoner/ first President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

“Always seek the company of those who seek God
But of those who have found him
Run as fast as you can.”
Vaclav Havel

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I seem to remember an exchange with you on so called gender identity. You stated how you were proud that the Netherlands Government supports so called “Gender Identity” and that I would be put in jail for my views (actually facts), if I were living there.

I wonder if I wanted to identity as a toddler, horse or another animal, would that be tolerated in the Netherlands,? 🙂

Let’s just leave it at that…The readers can judge, as it is quite clear who is living in a world of its own creation.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Your memory is wrong…I have never discussed the issue of Gender Identity. I HAVE reported that The Netherlands was the first country that accepted same-sex marriages and adoptions and that to that end they changed all official documentation and REMOVED all terminology hat was gender specific, changing it to the neutral term “PARTNER” Which has nothing to do with “Gender Identity”:!!! Artikel 1 of Section 1 of the Dutch Constitution states: “Any discrimination on the basis of Gender, Religion, Race OR Lifestyle is forbidden” I have no idea what views you hold, but if they ARE discriminatory to anyone you… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

There are only two biological genders, which cannot be changed, no matter the amount of surgery and hormone therapy. Therefore to remove gender specific terminology, is lying and misleading. They are only “identifying” as a gender, that they are not, and will never be. Moreover, it seems you are proud of and approve of the Netherlands Legislation that you have described. That is disturbing in in itself. So in that logic you would be a bigot to prevent someone who wants to “identify” as a small child or animal. So the readers can hopefully recognize that you are confused about… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Oh boy, how to deal with the ignorance of religious indoctrination. Is the world still flat? Removing gender specific language leaves in place equal value and equal rights no matter what the public or religious freaks believe it to be. I, for one, could not care less as to who sleeps with whom….Got it.? Your premise that somehow YOU are ENTITLED to judge that issue and implying that those who don’t follow YOUR myopic views are…. what was it bigots? is lunacy And yes, if you lived in the Netherlands and were to openly promote your views you will be… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my judgments but scientific fact! You haven’t stopped with your Pro-German “racist” imperialist drivel on this page so far.
In addition you are putting words into my mouth and bringing religion into this, where I never did. You are mentally sick. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Science has NOTHING to do with how love is experienced, or practiced. Many very old church paintings on wood panels show 2 men marrying. The Greeks practiced it. It is Paulinist teachings that judges it and has indoctrinated weak minded people who are easily manipulated into believing that one sort of people are bad and the others are good by the way they practice LOVE. But it always comes back to sex!! Of course those who judge are always good. YOU have a hang-up on Sex buddy. That too is Paulinist I have encountered people like you before. They are… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. You fail to “tolerate” the fact that Czech, Moravian and Silesian Speaking Slavs always were the majority in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, regardless of Holy Roman German Speaking Catholic Occupation and official persecution. This is based on historical fact with links provided. 2. I repeated a basic scientific fact, that there are only two biological genders. Feelings and misguided man-made laws do not change that. You then hysterically proceed to bring religion and now “gay” people into it, and assume that I have a hang-up on sex. It looks to me like you’re projecting. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

1. Is entirely irrelevant, After the 30 year long religious war between the RC and the Protestants was over it became the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Prussia. That there were different languages is common. To imply that is signifies anything more than that is nonsense. The Religious Roman war was over in 1648 2. No one contests the fact that there are TWO genders… It is the Paulinist indoctrination that this is meant solely for reproduction and that every other activity NOT related to reproductions is therefore a sin and to be condemned,. History is however full… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. They were and are Slavic lands as they contain a Slavic Speaking Majority and they will always be Czech, Moravian, and Silesian Lands, belonging to Slavic People, no matter any occupier, past, present or future. Nothing you can do about it, and no quantity of your written nonsense here will change that fact. Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 to represent that majority, living in its boundaries. 2. There are only two biological genders meaning that every person is designated the gender that they are, from birth. “Identifying” or “feelings” cannot change this in any way. To digress is nonsense.… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Oh, and with your expressed views, you would be tolerated, (but might find yourself being knocked out) in the Czech Republic. I have been to the Netherlands a number of times. And like the rest of the western world, it is regressing. Good luck to them.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_National_Revival Following the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Czech lands experienced Germanisation politics spearheaded by the Habsburg Emperors. The oppression was also connected with religion – up to 95% of the inhabitants of Bohemia were Protestants (See Hussite) when the Habsburgs took power. Although the Habsburgs had promised freedom of religion, they started rampant anti-Reformation and re-Catholization efforts which made most of the Czech elites flee the country. This violent re-Catholization has been suggested to be one of the reasons behind today’s widespread Czech atheism. During the two following centuries the Czech language had been more or less eradicated… Read more »

Constantine
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Constantine

Pretty much correct. I would add that while the Czechoslovak crisis over Sudetenland deepened, there was one country that started making preparations to aid Czechoslovakia and that was the USSR. Still, Benes informed them that he would not opt for war without western support. An interesting detail: Poland vehemently refused to aid Czechoslovakia (as it was about to seize a small chunk of the country) and went so far as to undermine Soviet efforts to support Benes. The US ambassador in Paris, William Bullitt, reported that his Polish counterpart, Lukacsiewicz, told him that Poland would join Germany in the case… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Thank you for that.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Czechoslovakia should have fought in 1938.

USSR and Czechs combined could have won against Germany.

Fero Dibarbora
Guest
Fero Dibarbora

To nase Slovensko nemalo moc na vyber. Ked sapodpisal pakt Polsko-Nemecky pakt, tak MZV vyhlasil, ze Polsko uz sa neciti byt viazane mierovymi dohoodami a v buducnosti ocakava spolocne Polsko Madarske hranice. Ja osobne povazujem Tisov stat, za kolaborantsky, ale taktiez vidim, ze vela inych moznosti nebolo. Bud byt vazalom Nemecka s vlastnym statom, alebo zaniknut pod Polskom a Madarskom. Mimochodom Poliaci zamietli pred Mnichovom mozny presun sovietskych vojsk na pomoc CSR v pripade potreby…

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Souhlas.

btheist
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btheist
Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Immediately after Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia, Poland used the opportunity to invade Czech Territory and took all of Czech Silesia for themselves.

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Typical czechist crap😂 And in 1919 the same territory including half of a Free City Cieszyn was invaded by Marsians and after killing ca 3000 Polish defendants and locals it was gifted to masonic project called czechoslovakia which soon after invaded (with a help from Mars 😆) ethnic Hungarian territory to expand eastern borders of its pseudo state (which is no more😂after another German-led split some 22 years back)! And in 1939 they took 6 year mental vacation (but industry full steem for German war effort) with German pseudo occupation (protectorate indeed😎) and in May 1945 had a week of… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Totally and factually wrong diarrhea.

You Russophobic Jesuit and Vatican Controlled Useful Idiot Polish Government think that we Czechs, Moravians and Slovakians are really Poles and should join you.

Never going to happen!

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Join who? GERMAN vomit?😂😂😂

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

We are Slavs, different than Poles, where it has been proven that the Ashkenazi (ie: Khazarian) Haplogroup is very prevalent.

We will not join any sort of Comedic Fantasy Empire Projects of Poles,like the current reiteration, so called Three Seas Initiative.

We are moving towards Russia along with Hungary.

Walter Dublanica
Member
Walter Dublanica

Good that Slavs join up with each other. What is the Haplogroup?

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Genetic Haplogroups of Poles have heavy Ashkenazi (Khazar) Concentrations.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You talk absolute nonsense.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Silesia was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and was German.
The Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Silesia was conquered by Prussia only in 1742.

It originated in 8th-9th century and was part of the Great Moravian Empire with majority Slavic Speaking population up until today.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

And the U.S. belonged to the Native Indians and a war between Britain and “other colonial immigrants” took place after which in 1776 the immigrant elite declared American independence and the genocide of the Natives became legal.
Should the world do something about that, you think?
In the 8th-9th century most people could neither read nor write so the “writing” was done by interested parties, which had little if anything to do with any reality.
But keep dreaming your ideology.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Yes the only way to take the territory is to completely wipe out the original culture and language of the subjugated people and become the majority, leaving no trace.
This did not happen in Silesia, Slavs remain the majority.
Therefore there are only two conclusions: You are trolling poorly, or you are simply stupid.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

After France, Great Britain and the Nazis carved Czechoslovakia in 1938. Italy, Austria, Spain, Romania , the Baltics, were all Hitler’s allies. The United States waited until December 1941 to declare war to Germany (they even had a pro-Hitler ambassador in UK – Joe Kennedy Sr.). It was then clear to the Soviet Union, that US and the rest of Europe DID NOT want to fight against Hitler. So the pact of non-aggression signed with Germany, was only logical. Less than two years later, on June 22, 1941, Hitler broke the pact (which he never intended to respect) and invaded… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Another Einstein! roll eyes

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

“CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech
politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of
his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely
authoritarian rule.”

Don’t think that correct. Benes’ rule was a largely democratic rule.

Czechoslovakia was one of the most democratic and least repressive states in europe during 1920s, 30s.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I think this article forgot the 1938 German-French treaty.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

Exactly. And the Anschluss, the occupation of Austria, in 1938 too.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

ahum…..Daisy…..After the 3 year miraculous recovery IN Germany after its total destruction in WW1. Having been entirely broken up…The Austrians who were still struggling after WW1 and the depression BEGGED Germany to allow it to join it. That is what Anschluss means…It means JOINING….There was NO occupation and every Austrian young man became part of the German army…..I know this because the Dutch resistance brought us a Austrian deserter with a death sentence on his head. He became my uncle. I am still in touch with his children in Vienna. “The Sound of Music” and the von Trapp family was… Read more »

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

“Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral”

“Neutral” , my foot. Sweden provided nazi Germany it the iron ore, necessary to the weapons industry, and even had its own SS brigade of 11,000 voluntaries, who fought against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. As “neutral” as Switzeland , which sheltered in its banks’ coffers the gold and artworks stolen by the nazis.

Ivan Grozny
Guest
Ivan Grozny

Also, little known but a fact – Sweden allowed the transfer of soldiers, including their weapons, by train, from the south all the way to the northern border with Norway!

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Tragedy of Czechoslovakia was that in September 1938, by most estimates, it had a more powerful military than Germany. It should have fought in 1938.

But UK under Chamberlain had a completely different agenda of pushing Germany eastwards to destroy USSR.

http://www.yamaguchy.com/library/quigley/anglo_12b.html

“Dr. Quigley explains how Nazi Germany seized a stronger Czechoslovakia”

http://www.carrollquigley.net/misc/Quigley_explains_how_Germany_conquered_Czechoslovakia.htm

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Czechoslovakia was until 1918 the German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia. So after the German Empire was created by unifying all these German Kingdoms etc into one large country called Germany in 1871 Britain/France and the U.S have done nothing but try to break up this German Reich. Germany did not create WW1 nor WW2. Britain/France and the US did. The Versailles Treaty chopped up Germany and Poland was created from the Kingdom of Prussia. and the Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s aim was to restore Germany as much as possible. Now why would the Germans in Czechoslovakia fight against… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

It was only German Speaking because of attempted official Vatican Jesuit eradication of Czech Language since the defeat at the battle of White Mountain.

The Czech Hussites should have adopted the imperial mindset of the Anglo Saxon and German Western Mentality when they conquered up to part of Germany, but did not stay.
This is typical of Slavs, as we just want to be left in peace to live and prosper.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Whatever….go ahead make up your own history.
Who’s we…Poland?
Who’s THEY “conquered up part of Germany but did not stay”?
You giving me brain cramp here.
Seems your brain goes way faster than your fingers. And while I am sure you have some coherent thoughts in your head they do not appear in these pages.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I Stated “Slavs” and then “we” as I am one, so are the Czechs, and so were the Hussites, in my last comment

I Stated “Hussites” and then referred to them as “they” in my last comment.

It seems you have a reading comprehension issue, responding to something you only imagined to have actually read.

There is no made up history in my comment, just fact, that apparently doesn’t support your particular beliefs, as per your previous comment.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Resorting to Local names does not help your cause. The Check Hussites did not conquer Germany. Czechoslovakia was the Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918 whether you like it or not. So Czechoslovakia was an artificial country that rightfully was part of Germany since 1871 and was illegally cut off from /Germany by the Versailles Treaty. So to speak of Hitler occupying Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) is absurd. Hussites are a local form of Christianity and why that should have entered into this discussion beats me. Hitler’s aim was to reunite German land with Germany… After WW2 there was whole scale ethnic cleaning… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my cause, but Historical Facts.
Thanks to the Hussites which were Czech Slavic National resistance to Roman Catholics and German Speakers. For two centuries Czech and Moravian Lands were free and Czech Speaking, thanks to the Hussites.
It wasn’t until 1620 when the Holy Roman Empire won the battle of White Mountain, that forced an official Germanization Policy, German immigration began and Czech Language was banned.

Your failure to comprehend is because of your reading comprehension issues, detailed for you in my last comment.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Campaigns of 1426 and 1427 (fourth anti-Hussite Crusade): In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. The Hussites subsequently invaded… Read more »

Constantine
Guest
Constantine

Czechoslovakia was not part of Germany, but of Austria-Hungary. The German minority region was the Sudeten borderland. The rest of the country wasn’t German speaking. And despite Nazi claims, the Czechoslovak authorities did not oppress the Germans. As for the Versailles Treaty, one may debate whether it was harsh or not. But it wasn’t illegal, since the Germans lost the war. Considering the far more draconian terms that the Germans imposed upon Russia in Brest-Litovsk – while they were under pressure to make peace in the east as soon as possible – one can only imagine what they had in… Read more »

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I’ll go with Quigley.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

That’s because you did not survive that war while I did.

The Narrator
Guest
The Narrator

NOOOOO IT’S THE FAULT OF THE PERSON WHO SHOT ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND! and the first people who declared war are the Brits and French!

samo war
Guest
samo war

adolffH was cia project ?

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

What a mega dose of horse shit this Russian propaganda article is😂😆😈 Bolshevics were not once but twice saved from total wipe out under combined Polish army and remnants of zarist armies in 1919 and in 1920 only because prusso-Germany was able to influence not just Piłsudski but also Dmowski!!! Moscow would have been cleared in days if the offensive were not stopped! Had Polish forces joined on either occasion with white Russians, Moscow would now be a provincial city in central Russia totally devoid of bolshevia scum which has infested that city and continues to produce such propaganda as… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You’ve got your dates screwed up….The Tsar was dead in 1918 and Prussia had become Poland as per the Versailles Treaty in 1917 which broke up Germany. Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Let me remind you that it was the Soviets that decimated the German Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, at the cost of 27 million Russian lives. THEY won the war. It was only 2.5 years later that the allies landed in Normandy for the mop up action and to make sure the Soviets would not overrun the whole of Europe. THEY preferred to do that themselves. Poland is an artificial country. In… Read more »

Vera Gottlieb
Guest
Vera Gottlieb

Wasn’t WW 1 to be the war to end all wars? And we are still not done with wars and more wars.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Adam you forgot Bulgaria, a German Nazi Ally.
Could it be to not offend the sensibilities of your friend, Nedka?

That being said I appreciate your well written articles and thinking, and your interviews with Nedka.
You are however Factually wrong here in this article, about Czechoslovakia.

Bessarabyn
Guest
Bessarabyn

Thanks. One correction : ” resistance to fascism was ” first led by the monarchist Serb General Mihailovitsch with brave allyugoslav men (and women) until treacherous Albion cut them off and sent all armaments nand supplies to the communist Croat Tito . He wrote : > I have outsmarted and deceived that old fox Churchill <. It was the Oxfordian armchair socialist poofters and the NWO servant Churchill himself who killed the strongest opposition on the Balkans. They then dismantled the state of Yugoslavia and of Serbia. caused the death of 250 000 human beings , created fake "states" and… Read more »

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Russia’s economy continues to outperform as gold takes center stage (Video)

The Duran Quick Take: Episode 118.

Alex Christoforou

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The Duran’s Alex Christoforou and Editor-in-Chief Alexander Mercouris examine how US and EU sanctions have continued to provide a huge boost to Russia’s economy. Russia’s food sovereignty has practically been achieved, as the Russian central bank continues to buy gold and lower its exposure to western financial markets.

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Via TASS…

Outside pressure in the form of sanctions has become an incentive to resolve various issues of Russia’s economy, Russian Security Council Secretary Nikolai Patrushev stated in an interview with the Izvestiya daily.

He noted that through introducing sanctions against Russia, “the West aims to destabilize Russia’s economy and to create social and political tensions in society.”

“But during the difficult times, Russians have always stuck together and mobilized their resources in order to ensure the country’s sovereignty. This is what is happening now – the outside pressure has become an incentive to resolve many problems in Russia’s economy,” he said.

“Before the sanctions, it seemed that we would never be able to feed ourselves and that we are doomed to be dependent on Western import. However, right now, Russia’s food sovereignty in crucial sectors has practically been achieved, and in some areas, Russia has become the leading exporter,” Patrushev noted.

Those who apply the sanctions “can see that they (the sanctions – TASS) are ineffective and often achieve the opposite goal,” the Russian security chief concluded.

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US Neocon Foreign Policy and the War Waged Against Serbia

The Serbian assault began first by a ‘financial war’; by sanctions and finished off by an aggressive unprovoked incessant NATO bombing campaign.

Richard Galustian

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The ‘witch-hunt’ against President Trump over Russian collusion has officially ended, following the submission of the Mueller Report, enabling us to now focus on the real problems of America that effects the whole world.

In the hope of a waining of the Russophobia in America, let’s look at the US’s recent war history by starting with the 20th anniversary this month of the NATO war on Serbia in 1999 which amounted to almost 100 days of bombing of historic cities and infrastructure.

Firstly, these problems are, in the main caused by the Neocons, or Deep State, whatever you wish to call them, and the continuing promotion, by the US Military-Security Industrial Complex, of wars and regime change and secondly, Trump’s unreserved support for Israel, regardless of war crimes they may continue to commit against the Palestinians.

Incredibly after that one sided unjust and illegal war that NATO executed, NATO has the audacity to invite Serbia to join it! Something that will never happen. What do they smoke in DC, in the Pentagon and Brussels based NATO?

To compound these overall problems, the US Military and Israeli Defence Forces collaborate on these US regime change policies on all continents evidenced most recently by the arrival of crack Israeli troops last month in Brazil, prepared to support an attack potentially by Brazil and Columbia on Venezuela.

As, has now come to be expected, America pursues its Venezuelan regime change with full main stream media (MSM) cooperation, using well proven sophisticated propaganda techniques along with a variety of pretexts.

From Serbia to Iraq to Libya, where does it end? Observe that Trump is now seeking a ‘NATO alliance’ offering NATO status, to President Bolsonaro of Brazil to back the invasion of Venezuela.

So it is important to remember, as an example, that after a long war of economic and financial destabilization ended with the bombing of Serbia.

Serbia was previously a part of Yugoslavia, a country which had successfully evolved after 1945 to solve the old rivalries of the 19th and early 20th Century Balkan ethnic animosities which was, prior to the advent of power of President Tito, its past history.

The United Nations, instead of supporting, in effect, so called ‘humanitarian wars’ and ‘regime change wars’ by the US, using NATO, helped and relentlessly driven home by MSM outlets like CNN and FOX NEWS into people’s heads, must finally take a stand.

So too, Yugoslavia, once the envy of many in the world, given its then ‘non-aligned’ status under President Tito, was destroyed and broken up; ‘Balkanized’ in the early 1990s.

The Serbian assault began first by a ‘financial war’; by sanctions and finished off by an aggressive unprovoked incessant NATO bombing campaign. That’s what we can expect in Venezuela next.

This ‘Balkanization’ strategy similarly applies to Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria et al. It serves US Neocon interests to dismember States in the world and create smaller more ‘manageable’ countries.

‘Regime change’ runs against the intent, the very words contained in the US Constitution. No one in MSM ever reminds us of that fact. Nevertheless America’s ambition to overthrow other States continues, which they arrogantly now make no secret of. The next States will probably be Nicaragua then Iran to name but two.

A very noteworthy most recent outrageous unilateral declaration was made by President Trump, not yet formally agreed by US institutions, ‘giving’ something he has no authority to give; Syrian territory, the Golan Heights to be precise, to Israel. Something that one day could trigger a full scale Arab-Israeli War.

This is of extreme importance yet no real outcry comes from world leaders; well not so far.

The main reason for that decision given by senior US Administration figures is that “God anointed Trump to save the Jews”.

Not forgetting Trump’s need (which we the people don’t understand exactly why) to support Prime Minister Netanyahu in his difficult upcoming elections in Israel – in part because both countries failed to ‘regime change’ Syria – but more importantly to help the ‘financial terrorists’ who formed a company jointly that has already started drilling for oil in the Golan Heights. You might like to know who owns such oil drilling company which should answer a plethora of questions in one go that you must be asking yourselves.

The shareholder’s names tells us everything; Dick Cheney; Baron Rothschild and Rupert Murdoch. The titular heads of neocons, bankers and media on the planet.

In ending there is no more evidence required for us, the people of the world, to rise up against the globalist dark forces wherever they exist, be it in Brussels, London, France or Washington. We must demand democratic elections or start revolutions, the latter has already begun in France in the form of ‘the yellow vests’. And Brexit, by definition, is a rejection by the British people of globalism and American Hegemony.

The pattern of US destabilization and destruction of States to loot them of their sovereign resources is the unseen history of the last 100 years, not taught in any university, anywhere in the West.

As far as Ukraine is concerned, its government was taken down by the CIA and replaced by an ultra fascist regime that has full backing from America. This is no secret. But the MSM simple don’t report it.

US led NATO is ‘the transnational war machine’ of the world, devouring almost all free countries wealth. It can extort to terrorize all into conformity to the global ‘carcinogenic’ US Neocon imperialistic strategy.

A total estimated 20m people around the world have died since the end of WW11 at the hands of US Forces. Think about that for a moment.

One of the most famous sayings attributed to America’s great President Abraham Lincoln is about deception: “You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.”

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‘Dark day for internet freedom’: EU approves controversial copyright reform

Julia Reda, a German MEP with the Pirate Party, described it as a “dark day for internet freedom.”

RT

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Via RT


The European Parliament has voted to adopt the highly controversial Article 13 provision which would govern the production and distribution of content online under the auspices of increasing copyright protections.

Tuesday’s move will update the EU’s 20-year-old copyright rules and will govern everything from audiovisual content to memes, much to the dismay of many social media users who have already begun outpouring their grief online.

MEPs passed the legislation by 348 votes to 274 Tuesday. Opponents had hoped for last-minute amendments to be made but their efforts were in vain.

Julia Reda, a German MEP with the Pirate Party, described it as a “dark day for internet freedom.”

Article 13 or ‘The Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market’ makes all platforms legally responsible for the content hosted and shared on their platforms.

The process of updating the bloc’s copyright laws began in the European Commission two years ago, ostensibly to protect Europe’s publishers, broadcasters and artists and guarantee fair compensation from big tech companies.

By essentially forcing companies like Google, Facebook and Twitter to pay artists and publishers for the reproduction of their work online, include in meme format, the EU is effectively clamping down on online memery.

The onus will now be on tech companies to clamp down on content-sharing on their platforms, which will likely ensure yet more draconian policing of speech and content.

EU member states now have two years to pass their own laws putting Article 13 into effect.

Tens of thousands marched in protest across Germany ahead of the vote, decrying what they viewed as severe online censorship.

Tech giant Google said that while the directive is “improved” it will still lead to legal uncertainty and will damage Europe’s creative and digital economies.

Critics have argued that the only way for Article 13 to be effectively enforced would be through the use of upload filters which automatically check content to see if it’s copyrighted or not, at least in theory. However, the exact mechanics of such a system have yet to be fully debated and the potential for abuse is immediately clear.

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