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REVEALED: Russian Orthodox Church VS. Roman Catholic Church

Here is how relations between the two Churches have developed throughout history.

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MOSCOW (Sputnik) – Monday marks the beginning of the four-day visit of Vatican Secretary of State Pietro Parolin to Russia, during which he is expected to hold meetings with Russian leadership and representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church.

The Roman Catholic Church is the biggest Christian Church uniting Catholic believers around the world. It is strictly centralized and hierarchical despite the existence of dozens of Local Catholic Churches in various countries. The Head of the Roman Catholic Church is the Pope, also known as the Pontiff, who has his residence in the Vatican.

Since the late 18th century and until 1917, Russia hosted the Apostolic Nunciature (embassy). The Metropolitan of the Roman Catholic Church in the Russian Empire was the Archbishop of Mogilev, who had his residence in St. Petersburg.

Under the Russo-Vatican Concordat of 1847, the Pope was recognized as the head of the Russian Catholics. In 1866, Russia broke off the Concordat unilaterally. The decision of St. Petersburg resulted in a situation whereby the Catholics of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland maintained contacts with the Roman Curia through the country’s interior ministers. All Catholic bishops were also appointed by the Russian emperors in agreement with the Pope.

READ MORE: The interesting history between Russia and the Vatican

After the October Revolution that took place in 1917, the Catholic priesthood came under the decree of the Soviet government on the separation of the Church from the State and the School from the Church issued on January 23, 1918 (on February 5, according to the Gregorian calendar).

In the USSR, there were two Roman Catholic hierarchies: the Lithuanian (the bishop’s jurisdiction extended only to Lithuania) and the Latvian (the Riga Archbishopric Ordinate ruled the Catholic Diocese in Latvia and dealt with Catholics in the entire USSR apart from Belarus, where an independent Minsk Diocese was formed in 1989).

Relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church reached a new level after the Second Vatican Council between 1962 and 1965, which introduced substantive amendments to the social doctrine and the ecumenical principles of the Catholic Church and officially recognized the Orthodox Church. This enabled the Orthodox Church to start an official dialogue with the Catholic Church in 1980. A Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church has also been created.

Relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the Moscow Patriarchate became tense in the early 1990s. The main problem was Catholic proselytism in Russia and other member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), as well as a conflict between Orthodox believers and Greek Catholics also known as Uniats in Western Ukraine.

By Catholic proselytism, the Moscow Patriarchate means “actions by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church, directed at involving Russians lacking a historical link with that [Catholic] Church but belonging to the Orthodox tradition by baptism and cultural roots into the liturgical and other church practices.”

Another problem was caused by tensions in relations between the Orthodox believers and Greek Catholics in Ukraine. The problem was aggravated by the Uniats overrunning three eparchies of the Moscow Patriarchate in Western Ukraine at the turn of the 1990s, the transition of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church center from Lviv to Kiev, its persistent desire to obtain the status of a Patriarchate, the expansion of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church mission to the traditionally Orthodox Eastern and Southern Ukraine, and the support the Uniats were giving to the Old Believers.

A Joint Working Group was established in 2004 to consider problems in relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

The unsolved problems in the relations between the two Churches were the reason why Pope John Paul II’s visit to Russia never took place and why the meeting between the Pope and Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II scheduled to be held in 1997 in Austria’s Graz, was canceled. During preliminary talks in 1997, the parties drafted a joint statement which, among other things, renounced Greek Catholicism as a means for reunifying the Churches and the Catholic proselytism in Russia and other CIS countries. But at the last moment, the top hierarchs of the Roman Catholic Church decided to drop these essential points from the joint document. This made the nearly organized meeting absolutely senseless.

The bilateral conflict became exacerbated in 2002, when Pope John Paul II decided to raise the status of the Catholic Church’s administrations in Russia to a diocese. This unfriendly step called forth a response from the Russian government, the Russian Orthodox Church and the public. The Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II, the Holy Synod, the Foreign Ministry, the country’s parliament and a number of influential public organizations, politicians, public and religious figures issued a statement on the issue. The Russian Orthodox Church was supported by representatives of other traditional faiths in Russia.

There is still the Uniate problem that prevents the two Churches from finally normalizing their relations. The situation has worsened as a result of recent events in Ukraine, in which Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church members are directly involved in anti-Russia activism and harbor anti-Russia sentiment.

The Russian Orthodox Church’s relations with the Roman Catholic Church are based on the Main Principles Guiding the Attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church toward the Non-Orthodoxy, which declare as the most important goal the “restoration of the God-ordained unity of Christians (John 17, 21), which is part of the design of God and belongs to the very essence of Christianity. This is a task of prime importance for the Orthodox Church at all levels of its existence.”

Apart from the nunciature-mediated dialogue, there are direct high-level contacts between President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity Cardinal Kurt Koch and Chairman of the Moscow Patriarchate’s External Church Relations Department, Metropolitan Hilarion. Planned meetings on cultural relations and student exchanges are held every year. Hilarion attends the most important events in the life of the Roman Catholic Church.

Cooperation is being promoted with the Pontifical Council for Culture, which includes several Orthodox hierarchs.

In February 2015, a working group for cultural cooperation was launched based on agreements reached between the Moscow Patriarchate’s Department for External Church Relations and the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.

On February 12, 2016, Cuba hosted the historic meeting between the Primates of the Roman Catholic and the Russian Orthodox churches. Patriarch Kirill and Pope Francis signed a joint declaration in Havana, which called on the world community to join efforts for the defense of Christians in the Middle East, Africa and other regions.

In 2016, the two Churches implemented several cultural cooperation projects, including the Roma Aeterna: Masterpieces of the Vatican Pinacoteca exhibition at the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, which was attended by 163,000 people.

The historic meeting of Patriarch Kirill and Pope Francis resulted in another event: the holy relics of St. Nicholas were brought from Bari, Italy to Russia, which was a unique event in the last 930 years. The artifact arrived in Moscow on May 21, 2017, and was deposited at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. On July 13, the relics were transferred to the St. Alexander Nevsky Monastery in St. Petersburg. Almost 2.5 million pilgrims venerated the relics while they were in Russia.

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ArtJohn R. NolanDonato Esperarosewood11Nikos Yiasou Recent comment authors
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Nikolaiki
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Nikolaiki

What a stupid title for this rather innocuous article.

John R. Nolan
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John R. Nolan

Why do people worship ‘church’ rather than God? Why are people pretending that a denominational church is anything more than a man controlled, hierarchical system of Spiritual and economic domination and, realistically, has nothing to do with God. There is One Church and One God, the Lord Jesus Christ is it’s head, not man! Note the high towers, gold plating, the religious garb, especially the mitres, the wealth, the power of the whore and her daughters, all contrary to what the Bible teaches. The pomp and religious ceremonies are straight out of Babylon, where man has been put over man,… Read more »

rosewood11
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rosewood11

Contrary to some others posting here, I learned quite a bit from this article. I had thought the big problem between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches was primarily a dispute on doctrinal grounds. Those issues remain, but political issues and proselytizing are also major problems. Recently, a Protestant man who has family ties to Orthodoxy tried to tell me that Patriarch Kirill had signed on to acknowledge the Pope as head of the Church when they met in Cuba. I didn’t quite believe that knowing what I did at the time, but this article completely refutes that (happily because… Read more »

Donato Espera
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Donato Espera

I agree with you, even though I’m a Roman Catholic. I pray for the union of Orthodox and Catholic Church in Christ, but not under Bergoglio’s heresy.

John R. Nolan
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John R. Nolan

Yes, soon all denominations will be joined to the beast, already most are signed up, and all world leaders, including Mr. Putin, worship the beast instead of God.
Could you please explain Bergoglio’s heresy, other than his claim to be God?
Could any show where the pope is infallible?
One suggests, Donato, that you search out your salvation with fear and trembling, for the whore has no power to forgive sins; it is only through a personal relationship with Jesus Christ that there is mercy, redemption from this cursed flesh, not any religion of man.

Art
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Art

I also am Catholic. I agree with you 1000%

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Russia Lures International Arms Buyers With Half-Priced, More Effective Missile System

The Russian S-400 mobile long-range surface-to-air missile system costs around $500 million, vs. the $1 billion price tag for a US-made Raytheon Patriot Pac-2 battery.

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Via Zerohedge


Russia has been pitching a rival missile platform that costs half of those made by US companies, reports CNBC, which has resulted in several countries dealing with the Kremlin “despite the potential for blowback.”

Sefa Karacan | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

The Russian S-400 mobile long-range surface-to-air missile system costs around $500 million, vs. the $1 billion price tag for a US-made Raytheon Patriot Pac-2 battery, while a THAAD battery made by Lockheed Martin costs just about $3 billion, according to people with first-hand knowledge of a US intelligence assessment.

Nearly 13 countries have expressed interest in buying Russia’s S-400, a move that could trigger potential U.S. sanctions under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, which President Donald Trump signed in August 2017. In September, the U.S. slapped sanctions on China  for buying fighter jets and missiles from Russia. However, the U.S. could grant sanction waivers. –CNBC

Turkey, meanwhile, may be hit with US sanctions over their decision to purchase the S-400 defense system, which the United States says poses a risk to its F-35 fifth generation stealth fighter platform.

Meanwhile, India called the United States’ bluff over sanctions in late Ocotber, standing its ground in its decision to buy the S-400.

One of the reasons Russian systems are generally considered less expensive than their American counterparts is because they don’t include pricey ongoing maintenance.

“When foreign militaries buy American, above and beyond the purchase, they are buying a partnership with the U.S. military,” Andrew Hunter, director of the Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, told CNBC. “And that plus the maintenance and technical assistance is a big part of the cost difference.

The S-400 system made its debut in 2007, succeeding the S-200 and S-300 missile systems. According to CNBC, “the Russian-made S-400 is capable of engaging a wider array of targets, at longer ranges and against multiple threats simultaneously,” vs. US-made systems.

In terms of capability, one source noted that while there is no perfect weapon, the S-400 eclipses even THAAD, America’s missile defense crown jewel.

When asked why nations seek to buy the S-400 instead of America’s Patriot or THAAD systems, one of the people with knowledge of the intelligence report explained that foreign militaries aren’t willing to stick with the cumbersome process of buying weapons from the U.S. government. –CNBC

“Many of these countries do not want to wait for U.S. regulatory hurdles,” said a CNBC source with first hand knowledge of the assessment. “The S-400 has less export restrictions and the Kremlin is willing to expedite sales by skipping over any regulatory hurdles.

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Britain’s Enemy Is Not Russia But It’s Own Ruling Class, UN Report Confirms

In austerity Britain, who the enemy is has never been more clear.

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Authored by John Wright. op-ed via RT.com:


As the UK political establishment rips itself to pieces over Brexit, a far greater crisis continues to afflict millions of victims of Tory austerity…

A devastating UN report into poverty in the UK provides incontrovertible evidence that the enemy of the British people is the very ruling class that has gone out of its way these past few years to convince them it is Russia.

Professor Philip Alston, in his capacity as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, spent two weeks touring the United Kingdom. He did so investigating the impact of eight years of one of the most extreme austerity programs among advanced G20 economies in response to the 2008 financial crash and subsequent global recession.

What he found was evidence of a systematic, wilful, concerted and brutal economic war unleashed by the country’s right-wing Tory establishment against the poorest and most vulnerable section of British society– upending the lives of millions of people who were not responsible for the aforementioned financial crash and recession but who have been forced to pay the price.

From the report’s introduction:

“It…seems patently unjust and contrary to British values that so many people are living in poverty. This is obvious to anyone who opens their eyes to see the immense growth in foodbanks and the queues waiting outside them, the people sleeping rough in the streets, the growth of homelessness, the sense of deep despair that leads even the Government to appoint a Minister for Suicide Prevention and civil society to report in depth on unheard of levels of loneliness and isolation.”

Though as a citizen of the UK I respectfully beg to differ with the professor’s claim that such social and economic carnage seems “contrary to British values,” (on the contrary it is entirely in keeping with the values of the country’s Tory establishment, an establishment for whom the dehumanization of the poor and working class is central to its ideology), the point he makes about it being “obvious to anyone who opens their eyes,” is well made.

For it is now the case that in every town and city centre in Britain, it is impossible to walk in any direction for more than a minute before coming across homeless people begging in the street. And the fact that some 13,000 of them are former soldiers, casualties of the country’s various military adventures in recent years, undertaken in service to Washington, exposes the pious platitudes peddled by politicians and the government as reverence for the troops and their ‘sacrifice,’ as insincere garbage.

Overall, 14 million people in the UK are now living in poverty, a figure which translates into an entire fifth of the population. Four million of them are children, while, according to Professor Alston, 1.5 million people are destitute – that is, unable to afford the basic necessities of life.

And this is what the ruling class of the fifth largest economy in the world, a country that parades itself on the world stage as a pillar of democracy and human rights, considers progress.

The values responsible for creating such a grim social landscape are compatible with the 18th not 21st century. They are proof positive that the network of elite private schools – Eton, Harrow, Fettes College et al. – where those responsible for this human carnage are inculcated with the sense of entitlement and born to rule ethos that defines them, are Britain’s hotbeds of extremism.

Professor Alston:

“British compassion for those who are suffering has been replaced by a punitive, mean-spirited, and often callous approach apparently designed to instill discipline where it is least useful, to impose a rigid order on the lives of those least capable of coping with today’s world, and elevating the goal of enforcing blind compliance over a genuine concern to improve the well-being of those at the lowest levels of British society.”

Here, set out above in bold relief, is the barbarism that walks hand in hand with free market capitalism. It is the same barbarism that was responsible for pushing post-Soviet Russia into a decade-long economic and social abyss in the 1990s, and the values that have pushed 14 million people in the UK into the same economic and social abyss in our time.

Austerity, it bears emphasizing, is not and never has been a viable economic response to recession in a given economy.

Instead, it is an ideological club, wielded on behalf of the rich and big business to ensure that the price paid for said economic recession is borne exclusively by those least able to bear it – namely, the poor and working people. It is class war by any other name, packaged and presented as legitimate government policy.

However, in Britain’s case in 2018, this is a war like no other because, as Professor Philip Alston’s report lays bare, only one side in this war has been throwing all the punches and only one side has been taking them.

With Christmas season upon us, the scale of human suffering across the UK ensures that the elaborate ad campaigns inviting us to shop and indulge to our heart’s content – ads depicting the middle class dream of affluence and material comfort – take on the character of a provocation. In fact, they call to mind the truism that wars take place when the government tells you who the enemy is, while revolutions take place when you work it out for yourself.

In austerity Britain, who the enemy is has never been more clear.

 

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‘Iron’ Mike Pence Stares-Down Putin In APEC Showdown

Vice President Mike Pence and National Security Advisor John Bolton were seen shaking hands and chatting with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of the ASEAN Summit in Singapore.

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Via Zerohedge


Forget the All-Blacks ‘Haka’, ignore Foreman-Frasier, Drago-Balboa, and Ortiz-Liddell, the honor of the greatest (or perhaps most awkward) staredown in history now goes to US Vice President Mike Pence…

Having been blamed for everything from Trump’s election victory to USA soccer team’s loss to England last week, Russia faced accusations all weekend and was reportedly confronted by the US contingent over “meddling.”

As The Sun reports, Pence and Putin “discussed the upcoming G20 Summit and touched on the issues that will be discussed when President Trump and President Putin are both in Argentina for the summit,” according to the vice president’s press secretary, Alyssa Farah.

An NBC reporter tweeted: “New per the @VP’s Office—> The VP’s office says Vice President Pence directly addressed Russian meddling in the 2016 election in a conversation with Vladimir Putin on Thursday in Singapore.

“The conversation took place following the plenary session this afternoon at ASEAN.”

But, it was the following clash of the titans that caught most people’s attention.

As the Russian president joined the that Pence shook Putin’s ‘deadly’ hand, met his ‘steely KGB-trained’ gaze, and desperately tried not to smile or blink for 20 seconds as Putin appeared to chat amicably with the US VP…

While Putin has (if his accusers are to be believed) grappled his opponents to death with his bare hands (remember he is a sinister KGB agent and jiu-jitsu expert); we suspect the only thing VP Pence has gripped tightly in his hands is his bible.

Sadly, John Bolton then blew the tough guy act (or is he Mike Pence’s ‘good cop’) as he does his best impression of a teenage girl meeting their popstar idol for the first time…

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