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7 non-aggression pacts and treaties signed by European countries with Nazi Germany

The interwar period was not one of democracies versus dictatorships, it was one of an ultra-right, fascist central and eastern Europe against an isolated Soviet Union.

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The inter-war period of Europe was not one of burgeoning democracies formed from the ashes of the First World War, but rather, central and Europe were countries that were overwhelmingly far-right dictatorship.

These are just some examples:

HUNGARY: In the interwar years, Hungary was ruled by an ultra-reactionary government most prominently by Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös. 

LATVIA: Latvian dictator Kārlis Ulmanis ruled with an iron far-right fist throughout the interwar years. 

LITHUANIA: Interwar Lithuanian leader Antanas Smetona helped push the country further and further to the proto-fascist right. 

ESTONIA: Konstantin Päts was something of a softer but still strongly nationalist dictator who effectively killed off democracy

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely authoritarian rule. 

And then there was Poland, a country who under the strongman military rule of Józef Piłsudski was the first European power to sign a bilateral non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler, four years prior to the unification of Hitler’s Germany with Austria in the Anschluss.

Here is a list of all the European powers that signed non-aggression pacts with Nazi Germany prior to August of 1939.

1. Poland–1934

The Second Polish Republic was dominated by two political rivals, Józef Piłsudski and Roman Dmowski. Although both figures are venerated in contemporary Poland, each man had a radically different idea about what Poland ought to be.

Józef Piłsudski called for a ‘greater Poland’ which would encompass much of the territory of the once vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which once dominated central and Eastern Europe.

Piłsudski was stridently anti-Russian whilst he totally underestimated and even discounted the coming German threat.

He sought to build a right-wing European federation which would rival and dominate the neighbouring Soviet Union. It was this policy which allowed his country to sleepwalk into the Polish-Soviet War which lasted from 1919-1921. It was Europe’s most protracted conflict of the inter-world war period….

…By contrast, Roman Dmowski favoured the settled post-First World War Polish borders and sought an ethnically and culturally homogenous state that would resist German nationalist ambitions whilst not antagonising the large Soviet state to the East.

Ultimately, Piłsudski’s brand of ‘Greater Polish’ expansionism won the day, leaving Poland dangerously exposed to German aggression which cost Poland dearly during the 1940s

READ MORE: Albania must take a lesson from Poland to avert another Balkan war

What’s more is that Piłsudski’s ambitions were a proximate cause of the Second World War, a war in which Poland suffered greatly.

Piłsudski’s obsession with Russia led him to dismiss threats of German expansionism as well as anti-Polish rhetoric from the fascist regime of Adolf Hitler.

In 1934, Piłsudski’s Foreign Minister Józef Beck helped cement a German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, years before the British engineered Munich Agreement of 1938, let alone the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939.

Although Poland’s attempts to create a new central/eastern European bloc never succeeded, it did accomplish two deeply unhelpful things.

First of all, because Roman Dmowski’s warnings about Germany were ignored, Poland actually sleep-walked into allowing German aggression against Polish lands which by September of 1939 erupted into the proximate cause of the Second World War in Europe.

Secondly, Piłsudski’s ambitions which he continued to promote long after the USSR adopted the anti-imperialist policy of ‘Socialism in One State’, actually helped to drum up support for militant far-right regimes throughout Europe.

Poland was blinded by mutual aggression against Czechoslovakia and mutual loathing of the USSR, that it got in bed with the country that would invade it in 1939, thus formally beginning the Second World War.

2. Britain–1935 and 1938

In 1935, London and Berlin signed the Anglo-German Naval Pact which guaranteed that the tonnage of the Kriegsmarine (Germany Navy) would never exceed 35% percent of that of the Royal Navy (British Navy).

In 1938, Britain and Germany again signed a pact, this time the Munich Agreement in which Britain allowed Hitler to invade and occupy part of Czechoslovakia. Britain of course had no right to to speak on Czechoslovakia’s behalf, giving away the territory of what was the least dictatorial country in central Europe at the time, but this is exactly what Britain did.

3. Romania–1939

The German–Romanian Economic Treaty of 1939 effectively gave Germany control over the entire Romanian economy and consequently the entire Romanian state. Only the Anschluss was a more encompassing treaty.

4. Denmark–1939

In May of 1939 Denmark became the only Scandinavian country to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany. By contrast Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral, although Finland fought the Winter War with the Soviet Union prior to the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War but after the Anglo-French declaration of war on Germany.

5. Italy–1939

In the spring of 1939, Italy signed the so-called ‘Pact of Steel’ with Germany, thus cementing the war time allience of two major fascist powers.

Norway contended itself with a German puppet government run by the infamous Vidkun Quisling

6.  Estonia–1939

On the 7th of June 1939 the Estonian regime of Konstantin Päts, the man who suspended the country’s democracy, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany.

7. Latvia–1939

On the same day as Estonia, Latvia which was then ruled by the proto-fascist dictator Kārlis Ulmanis, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Reich.

By August of 1939, in addition to the aforementioned countries, Hungary, Latvia and  Bulgaria were also firmly in the grip of pro-Nazi governments. By that time all of central and eastern Europe had fascist or far-right governments, with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia. In Southern Europe, the resistance to fascism was led by Hellenic resistance fighters and Yugoslav Partisans led by Tito, the future President of Yugoslavia.

It was only after all of this that the Soviet-Union signed a non-aggression pact with Berlin in August of 1939.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet-Union, thus beginning the Great Patriotic War.

After losing over 27 million people, on the 9th of May 1945, the USSR could rightly say it helped defeated fascism.

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Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Beneš was forced to resign on 5 October 1938, under German pressure. He later fled the German Occupation of Czechoslovakia to England (Although he was a coward and most likely higher ranking freemason).

He was NO Nazi Puppet or authoritarian like the other leaders and countries you mention. Please get your facts straight!

Czechoslovakia was occupied and dismembered by Nazi Germany.

Slovakia was allowed to form a Nazi Puppet Regime under Tiso.

Bohemia and Moravia (Czech lands) were absorbed as a protectorate and under German Nazi Occupation. My relatives and neighbours relatives died under German Occupation of Moravia!

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Lots of people died under German occupation. Most from Typhus. But you ramble on about Czechoslovakia being dismembered by the Germans….WOW….This was German land illegally taken from Germany by Third parties…read that again!!!
Check the lists of all the German speaking Kingdoms/Princedoms and Duchies that united into the German Reich in 1871 which was dismembered BY the Versailles Treaty creating by fiat Czechoslovakia out of thin air and Poland etc. You cannot absorbed a land that belongs to you in the first place. It was German territory.
Dying is not an accomplishment…. It’s part of war.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

My relative and neigbours relatives were executed by the Nazi German Regime, they didn’t just die. It was only “German Land” because of banning and attempting to destroy Czech Language after Czechs/Moravians lost the battle of White Mountain to the so called Holy Roman Empire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_White_Mountain They were still Lands with a majority Czech Speaking and Slavic Population. However with German immigration for 300 years, Germans became the majority in areas called the Sudetenland. This was slow ethnic cleansing and forced assimilation of the Slavic Population by official decree. The Czech Language was forbidden to be used in education, business… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

The Minister/pastor that Christened me in the Netherlands was put against the wall and summarily shot because some young idiot in the resistance thought it was a good idea to kill a German. The Roman Empire did not recognize borders…. Every region has different laguages and cultures. IN the Netherlands which is a small country there is one province called Friesland where people speak Friesian. Their Bible is in Friesian. All Friesian names end in “ma” or “stra” Officially the English language hails from the Dutch and Friesian, Now I do recognize some Dutch words in the old English but… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Facts based on historical record that I posted here, that you wishfully choose to ignore.

We Czechs and Moravians always lived in our lands, (since 8-9th Century) long before the German Speaking Minority arrived in Sudetenland. We did not just magically appear in those lands in 1918 out of nowhere. We were subjugated by the Holy Roman Empire, represented by German Speakers. And BTW we are still living in our lands today, as a majority.

It is actually your “facts” that are based on wishful thinking.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Rastislav Veľká Morav, is the history of Chamberlain’s plot to push Germany eastwards to destroy USSR well known among Czechs? This history is mostly suppressed in western world. If you open a typical book on WWII written by western historians, you won’t find the real reasons for why UK gave into Hitler’s demands in 1938-1939. They will give you garbage propaganda. “And by this date, certain members of the Milner Group and of the British Conservative government had reached the fantastic idea that they could kill two birds with one stone by setting Germany and Russia against one another in… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Bankotsu. Most Czechs,and Moravians believe that they were betrayed for the sake of appeasement. However many do believe that we should of fought and that it was that Government’s cowardice and meek obedience.

What you have written is probably the real truth as Hitler was financed by the Banking Houses and Prescott Bushes, in order to immediately take on the Soviet Union.

Silesians/Moravians in Frydek Mistek were the only ones disobey the orders to stand down after the commanding officer committed suicide.
http://military.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_Czajánek%27s_barracks

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I have researched the topic of pre WWII UK appeasement policy for a long time and what I said above is 100% truth.

There are very few books written in english that tell the truth about UK’s agenda pre WWII. Most of the true history is suppressed. But one of the best books which reveals the truth is Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope:

http://www.carrollquigley.net/books.htm

Read chapters VI and XII for the explainations on why UK pushed Germany eastwards to destroy Soviet Union.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Living in certain areas does not make it a country…You are speaking of ideology/language/culture I am speaking of geography and official boundaries. In 1918 it was summarily decided via the Versailles Treaty to designate out of certain German regions a number of altogether new countries.Czechoslovakia was one of them, regardless of who lived there. All this “my land” did not work out so well for Czechoslovakia did it? Thanks to Vaclav Havel’s wisdom, all the differences between the Czechs and the Slovaks were handled peacefully and they split…So much for the “OUR people” mentality. If you look at the Kurdish… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Vaclav Havel was a member of the Club of Rome, 32 degree Freemason and puppet. He is known as the Humanitarian Bomber of the Serbs, as that is what he called the NATO aggression on Serbia. Why bring his name into this, to muddy the waters? Speaking of the Serbs, they were under the Ottoman Turks for 400 years, occupied by them as we Czechs and Moravians were occupied under German Speaking Roman Catholics for 300 years, who officially abolished the Czech Language and attempted to Germanise us after 1620. The Czechs and Moravian Slavic Speakers were always the overwhelming… Read more »

my2Cents
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my2Cents

There was a rather long response which somehow disappeared.
I really lack the energy or the interest to repeat what I said.
You live in a world of your own creation. Vaclav Havel was a highly respected Poet, Playwrite/Political prisoner/ first President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

“Always seek the company of those who seek God
But of those who have found him
Run as fast as you can.”
Vaclav Havel

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I seem to remember an exchange with you on so called gender identity. You stated how you were proud that the Netherlands Government supports so called “Gender Identity” and that I would be put in jail for my views (actually facts), if I were living there.

I wonder if I wanted to identity as a toddler, horse or another animal, would that be tolerated in the Netherlands,? 🙂

Let’s just leave it at that…The readers can judge, as it is quite clear who is living in a world of its own creation.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Your memory is wrong…I have never discussed the issue of Gender Identity. I HAVE reported that The Netherlands was the first country that accepted same-sex marriages and adoptions and that to that end they changed all official documentation and REMOVED all terminology hat was gender specific, changing it to the neutral term “PARTNER” Which has nothing to do with “Gender Identity”:!!! Artikel 1 of Section 1 of the Dutch Constitution states: “Any discrimination on the basis of Gender, Religion, Race OR Lifestyle is forbidden” I have no idea what views you hold, but if they ARE discriminatory to anyone you… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

There are only two biological genders, which cannot be changed, no matter the amount of surgery and hormone therapy. Therefore to remove gender specific terminology, is lying and misleading. They are only “identifying” as a gender, that they are not, and will never be. Moreover, it seems you are proud of and approve of the Netherlands Legislation that you have described. That is disturbing in in itself. So in that logic you would be a bigot to prevent someone who wants to “identify” as a small child or animal. So the readers can hopefully recognize that you are confused about… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Oh boy, how to deal with the ignorance of religious indoctrination. Is the world still flat? Removing gender specific language leaves in place equal value and equal rights no matter what the public or religious freaks believe it to be. I, for one, could not care less as to who sleeps with whom….Got it.? Your premise that somehow YOU are ENTITLED to judge that issue and implying that those who don’t follow YOUR myopic views are…. what was it bigots? is lunacy And yes, if you lived in the Netherlands and were to openly promote your views you will be… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my judgments but scientific fact! You haven’t stopped with your Pro-German “racist” imperialist drivel on this page so far.
In addition you are putting words into my mouth and bringing religion into this, where I never did. You are mentally sick. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Science has NOTHING to do with how love is experienced, or practiced. Many very old church paintings on wood panels show 2 men marrying. The Greeks practiced it. It is Paulinist teachings that judges it and has indoctrinated weak minded people who are easily manipulated into believing that one sort of people are bad and the others are good by the way they practice LOVE. But it always comes back to sex!! Of course those who judge are always good. YOU have a hang-up on Sex buddy. That too is Paulinist I have encountered people like you before. They are… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. You fail to “tolerate” the fact that Czech, Moravian and Silesian Speaking Slavs always were the majority in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, regardless of Holy Roman German Speaking Catholic Occupation and official persecution. This is based on historical fact with links provided. 2. I repeated a basic scientific fact, that there are only two biological genders. Feelings and misguided man-made laws do not change that. You then hysterically proceed to bring religion and now “gay” people into it, and assume that I have a hang-up on sex. It looks to me like you’re projecting. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

1. Is entirely irrelevant, After the 30 year long religious war between the RC and the Protestants was over it became the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Prussia. That there were different languages is common. To imply that is signifies anything more than that is nonsense. The Religious Roman war was over in 1648 2. No one contests the fact that there are TWO genders… It is the Paulinist indoctrination that this is meant solely for reproduction and that every other activity NOT related to reproductions is therefore a sin and to be condemned,. History is however full… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. They were and are Slavic lands as they contain a Slavic Speaking Majority and they will always be Czech, Moravian, and Silesian Lands, belonging to Slavic People, no matter any occupier, past, present or future. Nothing you can do about it, and no quantity of your written nonsense here will change that fact. Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 to represent that majority, living in its boundaries. 2. There are only two biological genders meaning that every person is designated the gender that they are, from birth. “Identifying” or “feelings” cannot change this in any way. To digress is nonsense.… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Oh, and with your expressed views, you would be tolerated, (but might find yourself being knocked out) in the Czech Republic. I have been to the Netherlands a number of times. And like the rest of the western world, it is regressing. Good luck to them.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_National_Revival Following the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Czech lands experienced Germanisation politics spearheaded by the Habsburg Emperors. The oppression was also connected with religion – up to 95% of the inhabitants of Bohemia were Protestants (See Hussite) when the Habsburgs took power. Although the Habsburgs had promised freedom of religion, they started rampant anti-Reformation and re-Catholization efforts which made most of the Czech elites flee the country. This violent re-Catholization has been suggested to be one of the reasons behind today’s widespread Czech atheism. During the two following centuries the Czech language had been more or less eradicated… Read more »

Constantine
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Constantine

Pretty much correct. I would add that while the Czechoslovak crisis over Sudetenland deepened, there was one country that started making preparations to aid Czechoslovakia and that was the USSR. Still, Benes informed them that he would not opt for war without western support. An interesting detail: Poland vehemently refused to aid Czechoslovakia (as it was about to seize a small chunk of the country) and went so far as to undermine Soviet efforts to support Benes. The US ambassador in Paris, William Bullitt, reported that his Polish counterpart, Lukacsiewicz, told him that Poland would join Germany in the case… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Thank you for that.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Czechoslovakia should have fought in 1938.

USSR and Czechs combined could have won against Germany.

Fero Dibarbora
Guest
Fero Dibarbora

To nase Slovensko nemalo moc na vyber. Ked sapodpisal pakt Polsko-Nemecky pakt, tak MZV vyhlasil, ze Polsko uz sa neciti byt viazane mierovymi dohoodami a v buducnosti ocakava spolocne Polsko Madarske hranice. Ja osobne povazujem Tisov stat, za kolaborantsky, ale taktiez vidim, ze vela inych moznosti nebolo. Bud byt vazalom Nemecka s vlastnym statom, alebo zaniknut pod Polskom a Madarskom. Mimochodom Poliaci zamietli pred Mnichovom mozny presun sovietskych vojsk na pomoc CSR v pripade potreby…

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Souhlas.

btheist
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btheist
Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Immediately after Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia, Poland used the opportunity to invade Czech Territory and took all of Czech Silesia for themselves.

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Typical czechist crap😂 And in 1919 the same territory including half of a Free City Cieszyn was invaded by Marsians and after killing ca 3000 Polish defendants and locals it was gifted to masonic project called czechoslovakia which soon after invaded (with a help from Mars 😆) ethnic Hungarian territory to expand eastern borders of its pseudo state (which is no more😂after another German-led split some 22 years back)! And in 1939 they took 6 year mental vacation (but industry full steem for German war effort) with German pseudo occupation (protectorate indeed😎) and in May 1945 had a week of… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Totally and factually wrong diarrhea.

You Russophobic Jesuit and Vatican Controlled Useful Idiot Polish Government think that we Czechs, Moravians and Slovakians are really Poles and should join you.

Never going to happen!

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Join who? GERMAN vomit?😂😂😂

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

We are Slavs, different than Poles, where it has been proven that the Ashkenazi (ie: Khazarian) Haplogroup is very prevalent.

We will not join any sort of Comedic Fantasy Empire Projects of Poles,like the current reiteration, so called Three Seas Initiative.

We are moving towards Russia along with Hungary.

Walter Dublanica
Member
Walter Dublanica

Good that Slavs join up with each other. What is the Haplogroup?

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Genetic Haplogroups of Poles have heavy Ashkenazi (Khazar) Concentrations.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You talk absolute nonsense.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Silesia was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and was German.
The Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Silesia was conquered by Prussia only in 1742.

It originated in 8th-9th century and was part of the Great Moravian Empire with majority Slavic Speaking population up until today.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

And the U.S. belonged to the Native Indians and a war between Britain and “other colonial immigrants” took place after which in 1776 the immigrant elite declared American independence and the genocide of the Natives became legal.
Should the world do something about that, you think?
In the 8th-9th century most people could neither read nor write so the “writing” was done by interested parties, which had little if anything to do with any reality.
But keep dreaming your ideology.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Yes the only way to take the territory is to completely wipe out the original culture and language of the subjugated people and become the majority, leaving no trace.
This did not happen in Silesia, Slavs remain the majority.
Therefore there are only two conclusions: You are trolling poorly, or you are simply stupid.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

After France, Great Britain and the Nazis carved Czechoslovakia in 1938. Italy, Austria, Spain, Romania , the Baltics, were all Hitler’s allies. The United States waited until December 1941 to declare war to Germany (they even had a pro-Hitler ambassador in UK – Joe Kennedy Sr.). It was then clear to the Soviet Union, that US and the rest of Europe DID NOT want to fight against Hitler. So the pact of non-aggression signed with Germany, was only logical. Less than two years later, on June 22, 1941, Hitler broke the pact (which he never intended to respect) and invaded… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Another Einstein! roll eyes

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

“CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech
politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of
his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely
authoritarian rule.”

Don’t think that correct. Benes’ rule was a largely democratic rule.

Czechoslovakia was one of the most democratic and least repressive states in europe during 1920s, 30s.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I think this article forgot the 1938 German-French treaty.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

Exactly. And the Anschluss, the occupation of Austria, in 1938 too.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

ahum…..Daisy…..After the 3 year miraculous recovery IN Germany after its total destruction in WW1. Having been entirely broken up…The Austrians who were still struggling after WW1 and the depression BEGGED Germany to allow it to join it. That is what Anschluss means…It means JOINING….There was NO occupation and every Austrian young man became part of the German army…..I know this because the Dutch resistance brought us a Austrian deserter with a death sentence on his head. He became my uncle. I am still in touch with his children in Vienna. “The Sound of Music” and the von Trapp family was… Read more »

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

“Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral”

“Neutral” , my foot. Sweden provided nazi Germany it the iron ore, necessary to the weapons industry, and even had its own SS brigade of 11,000 voluntaries, who fought against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. As “neutral” as Switzeland , which sheltered in its banks’ coffers the gold and artworks stolen by the nazis.

Ivan Grozny
Guest
Ivan Grozny

Also, little known but a fact – Sweden allowed the transfer of soldiers, including their weapons, by train, from the south all the way to the northern border with Norway!

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Tragedy of Czechoslovakia was that in September 1938, by most estimates, it had a more powerful military than Germany. It should have fought in 1938.

But UK under Chamberlain had a completely different agenda of pushing Germany eastwards to destroy USSR.

http://www.yamaguchy.com/library/quigley/anglo_12b.html

“Dr. Quigley explains how Nazi Germany seized a stronger Czechoslovakia”

http://www.carrollquigley.net/misc/Quigley_explains_how_Germany_conquered_Czechoslovakia.htm

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Czechoslovakia was until 1918 the German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia. So after the German Empire was created by unifying all these German Kingdoms etc into one large country called Germany in 1871 Britain/France and the U.S have done nothing but try to break up this German Reich. Germany did not create WW1 nor WW2. Britain/France and the US did. The Versailles Treaty chopped up Germany and Poland was created from the Kingdom of Prussia. and the Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s aim was to restore Germany as much as possible. Now why would the Germans in Czechoslovakia fight against… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

It was only German Speaking because of attempted official Vatican Jesuit eradication of Czech Language since the defeat at the battle of White Mountain.

The Czech Hussites should have adopted the imperial mindset of the Anglo Saxon and German Western Mentality when they conquered up to part of Germany, but did not stay.
This is typical of Slavs, as we just want to be left in peace to live and prosper.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Whatever….go ahead make up your own history.
Who’s we…Poland?
Who’s THEY “conquered up part of Germany but did not stay”?
You giving me brain cramp here.
Seems your brain goes way faster than your fingers. And while I am sure you have some coherent thoughts in your head they do not appear in these pages.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I Stated “Slavs” and then “we” as I am one, so are the Czechs, and so were the Hussites, in my last comment

I Stated “Hussites” and then referred to them as “they” in my last comment.

It seems you have a reading comprehension issue, responding to something you only imagined to have actually read.

There is no made up history in my comment, just fact, that apparently doesn’t support your particular beliefs, as per your previous comment.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Resorting to Local names does not help your cause. The Check Hussites did not conquer Germany. Czechoslovakia was the Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918 whether you like it or not. So Czechoslovakia was an artificial country that rightfully was part of Germany since 1871 and was illegally cut off from /Germany by the Versailles Treaty. So to speak of Hitler occupying Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) is absurd. Hussites are a local form of Christianity and why that should have entered into this discussion beats me. Hitler’s aim was to reunite German land with Germany… After WW2 there was whole scale ethnic cleaning… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my cause, but Historical Facts.
Thanks to the Hussites which were Czech Slavic National resistance to Roman Catholics and German Speakers. For two centuries Czech and Moravian Lands were free and Czech Speaking, thanks to the Hussites.
It wasn’t until 1620 when the Holy Roman Empire won the battle of White Mountain, that forced an official Germanization Policy, German immigration began and Czech Language was banned.

Your failure to comprehend is because of your reading comprehension issues, detailed for you in my last comment.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Campaigns of 1426 and 1427 (fourth anti-Hussite Crusade): In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. The Hussites subsequently invaded… Read more »

Constantine
Guest
Constantine

Czechoslovakia was not part of Germany, but of Austria-Hungary. The German minority region was the Sudeten borderland. The rest of the country wasn’t German speaking. And despite Nazi claims, the Czechoslovak authorities did not oppress the Germans. As for the Versailles Treaty, one may debate whether it was harsh or not. But it wasn’t illegal, since the Germans lost the war. Considering the far more draconian terms that the Germans imposed upon Russia in Brest-Litovsk – while they were under pressure to make peace in the east as soon as possible – one can only imagine what they had in… Read more »

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I’ll go with Quigley.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

That’s because you did not survive that war while I did.

The Narrator
Guest
The Narrator

NOOOOO IT’S THE FAULT OF THE PERSON WHO SHOT ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND! and the first people who declared war are the Brits and French!

samo war
Guest
samo war

adolffH was cia project ?

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

What a mega dose of horse shit this Russian propaganda article is😂😆😈 Bolshevics were not once but twice saved from total wipe out under combined Polish army and remnants of zarist armies in 1919 and in 1920 only because prusso-Germany was able to influence not just Piłsudski but also Dmowski!!! Moscow would have been cleared in days if the offensive were not stopped! Had Polish forces joined on either occasion with white Russians, Moscow would now be a provincial city in central Russia totally devoid of bolshevia scum which has infested that city and continues to produce such propaganda as… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You’ve got your dates screwed up….The Tsar was dead in 1918 and Prussia had become Poland as per the Versailles Treaty in 1917 which broke up Germany. Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Let me remind you that it was the Soviets that decimated the German Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, at the cost of 27 million Russian lives. THEY won the war. It was only 2.5 years later that the allies landed in Normandy for the mop up action and to make sure the Soviets would not overrun the whole of Europe. THEY preferred to do that themselves. Poland is an artificial country. In… Read more »

Vera Gottlieb
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Vera Gottlieb

Wasn’t WW 1 to be the war to end all wars? And we are still not done with wars and more wars.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Adam you forgot Bulgaria, a German Nazi Ally.
Could it be to not offend the sensibilities of your friend, Nedka?

That being said I appreciate your well written articles and thinking, and your interviews with Nedka.
You are however Factually wrong here in this article, about Czechoslovakia.

Bessarabyn
Guest
Bessarabyn

Thanks. One correction : ” resistance to fascism was ” first led by the monarchist Serb General Mihailovitsch with brave allyugoslav men (and women) until treacherous Albion cut them off and sent all armaments nand supplies to the communist Croat Tito . He wrote : > I have outsmarted and deceived that old fox Churchill <. It was the Oxfordian armchair socialist poofters and the NWO servant Churchill himself who killed the strongest opposition on the Balkans. They then dismantled the state of Yugoslavia and of Serbia. caused the death of 250 000 human beings , created fake "states" and… Read more »

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Hillary and Holder are hurting Democrat Party with their rhetoric

Democrat-written opinion piece points out the fact that the party has radicalized so much it has left its own supporters behind.

Seraphim Hanisch

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Fox News ran an opinion piece written by Douglas E. Schoen early Sunday. It points out how radicalized the Democrat Party has become, and it is noteworthy because Douglas Schoen is a Democrat himself. He writes (emphasis added):

As Democrats campaign for the Nov. 6 midterm elections, they have plenty of legitimate criticisms to level at President Trump and Republicans who control the House and Senate. But Democrats were hurt in recent days by amazing and disgusting comments made by Hillary Clinton and former Attorney General Eric Holder.

As a Democrat, I want my party to win as many seats as possible in the House and Senate and to capture as many governorships and other state offices as it can. But the Clinton and Holder remarks do not advance that effort – they hurt it.

Former Secretary of State and 2016 Democratic presidential nominee Clinton said Tuesday that “you cannot be civil with” the Republican Party because it “wants to destroy what you stand for, what you care about.” She added that “if we are fortunate enough to win back the House and or the Senate, that’s when civility can start again.”

But even worse than Clinton’s comments were those of Eric Holder, who said at a recent campaign event in Georgia that Democrats should abandon the advice of former first lady Michelle Obama, who said at the 2016 Democratic National Convention that her party and mine should respond positively to negative attacks from the GOP.

Mrs. Obama said that “when someone is cruel or acts like a bully, you don’t stoop to their level. No, our motto is, when they go low, we go high.”

Holder argued just the opposite, saying: “When they go low, we kick them. That’s what this new Democratic Party is about.” He later said he wasn’t advocating violence – not literal kicking.

I beg to differ with both Clinton and Holder.

The only way the Democrats can regain the majority in either or both houses of Congress is by being civil, and pointing out the differences between Democrats and Republicans on the issues.

This is the real issue that should govern elections. Rather than the politics of popularity, one needs to consider policy points and which side offers points that are actually achievable, believable, concrete, desirable and specific. Calling President Trump and his administration names does not offer any constructive dialogue on policy matters.

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Conservatives and Trump supporters know this and it is precisely because of this that Donald Trump won the White House.

While the mainstream media (and here we can include Fox News largely) tried every possible way to ridicule Donald Trump’s candidacy, the people that actually listened to what he had to say found him very impressive on policy as much as his ability to speak as the voice of the people. The recent hysteria around Brett Kavanaugh’s nomination and confirmation to the Supreme Court was hysteria up front, driven by real policy fears from the deep core of liberals, as they know that this Justice is likely to form an effective wall against liberals ramming their agenda through the courts since their efforts fail legislatively so often.

Mr. Schoen continues:

As a centrist Democrat, the issue that strikes me most is the degree to which the national debt and the deficit are now out of control.

America faces uncertain and unstable times financially. Yet we are seeing a Republican-controlled Congress that has largely failed to do anything besides provide tax cuts for major corporations and the wealthiest individuals. This is by no means certain to have fundamentally altered the path of the economy or to provide economic growth.

Put another way, what the Trump administration has failed to do is to fix health care and cover pre-existing conditions more fundamentally; lead America in a fiscally responsible way; and pass tax cuts that help the average American. The Trump tax cuts have driven up the national debt and endangered funding for programs that benefit millions of people in our country.

So, here are policy points. Now we can begin to have a debate. Is Mr. Schoen right, or wrong in his information? This is far different than name-calling!

Democrats have long argued the need for a centrist agenda that focuses on:

  • Providing health-care benefits – whether private or public – to all Americans to cover expansively all pre-existing conditions.
  • Protecting the environment from the policies of the Trump administration that have only encouraged –and I dare say exacerbated – environmental degradation and climate change.
  • Promoting a pro-growth, inclusive agenda that seeks to put working people first, and the interests of Washington insiders and economic elites second. President Trump claims that he is doing this – he calls it “draining the swamp” – but this has not happened.

There is no justification for the angry rhetoric of Clinton and Holder, which only feeds into Republican claims that Democrats are an angry mob that can’t get over Clinton’s loss to Trump two years ago.

And Holder looks particularly bad because he was once the chief law enforcement officer of the United States, yet now sounds like he is effectively advocating what appears to be either illegal activities, or metaphorical initiatives that run counter to our traditions and our politics.

Hillary Clinton has said she won’t run for office again, but Holder has said he may run for president in 2020. Whoever the Democratic candidate turns out to be needs to be a responsible and respectable opponent – not one who calls for kicking the GOP or for incivility.

We should have learned from the Senate confirmation hearing for now-Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh that resisting for the sake of resisting doesn’t work. In fact, Democratic attacks on Kavanaugh may well have backfired, recent polls show.

The Democratic Party itself is lost now, without a message, a direction, a strategy, or agenda to confront a Republican Party that is seen as in many ways as having let the American people down.

We need change – but it must be constructive change. This Democrat believes that the comments that Eric Holder and Hillary Clinton made are wrong, counterproductive, and deserve to be rejected by the leadership of the Democratic Party.

Perhaps Fox News ran this opinion piece because Douglas Schoen is the first rational Democrat contributor to say anything in some time. However, it also appears that Mr. Schoen is a minority in his own party. It is a greatly logical approach to argue policy, as he has and as anyone who really understands American government should. But it is unclear as to whether the bulk of the Democrat Party even has reasonable people remaining.

If they do, it may well be that they are being betrayed by their party’s increasingly leftist and radical positions. The Party apparatus seems focused, but it also seems to have left people like Mr. Schoen behind.

Who knows? Maybe that will bring them into the Trump camp.

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Patriarch Bartholomew lifts anathemas on schismatics in Ukraine (VIDEO)

Most of the Orthodox world is in strong opposition to this move by Patriarch Bartholomew, whose motivations seem not to be of Christ.

Seraphim Hanisch

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The biggest news in the Eastern Orthodox world in recent times occurred on Thursday, October 11, 2018. The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Bartholomew I, lifted the anathemas against two schismatic Ukrainian Churches and their leaders, paving the way to the creation of a fully independent Ukrainian national Orthodox Church.

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This announcement was given in English and is shown here in video with the textual transcript following:

“Presided by His All Holiness the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, the Holy and Sacred Synod convened for its regular session from October 9 to 11, 2018 in order to examine and discuss items on its agenda. The Holy Synod discussed in particular and at length, the ecclesiastical mater of Ukraine in the presence of His Excellency Archbishop Daniel of Pamphilon and His Grace Bishp Ilarion of Edmonon, Patriarchal Exarchs to Ukraine, and following extensive deliberations decreed (emphasis added):

First, to renew the decision already made, that the Ecumenical Patriarchate proceed to the granting of autocephaly to the Church of Ukraine;

Second, to re-establish at this moment the stavropegion of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Kiev—one of its many starvorpegion in Ukraine that existed there always;

Third, to accept and review the petitions of appeal of Philaret Denisenko and Makary Maletich and their followers who found themselves in schism not for dogmatic reasons, in accordance with the canonical prerogatives of the Patriarchate of Constantinople to receive such petitions by hierarchs and other clergy of all the autocephalous Churches. Thus, the above mentioned have been canonically reinstated to their hierarchical or priestly rank, and their faithful have been restored to communion with the Church;

Fourth, to revoke the legal binding of the Synodal letter of the year 1686, issued for the circumstances of that time, which granted the right through economia to the Patriarch of Moscow to ordain the Metropolitan of Kiev elected by the clergy-laity assembly of his eparchy, who would commemorate the Ecumenical Patriarch as the first hierarch at any celebration, proclaiming and affirming his canonical dependence to the Mother Church of Constantinople;

Fifth, to appeal to all sides involved that they avoid appropriation of churches, monasteries, and other properties as well as every other act of violence and retaliation so that he peace and love of Christ may prevail.”

There are a few things that must be said about what this declaration is not before we get to the matter of what the points of actually are. The point of reference is the strict letter of the text above itself.

  • This is not a granting of autocephaly (full independent self-rule status) like the fourteen universally canonical Orthodox jurisdictions in the world. However, it is a huge step towards this status.
  • As far as Constantinople is concerned, Filaret Denisenko, the leader and “Patriarch” of the “Kyiv Patriarchate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church” and Makary, the “Metropolitan” of the “Ukrainian Orthodox Autocephalous Church”, and all their faithful are now restored to communion. The statement says that this applies to “The Church” which may be trying to state that these two men (and all the faithful that they lead), are now in communion with the entirety of canonical Orthodoxy, but more likely, this may be a carefully worded statement to say they now are in communion with Constantinople alone.
  • There is an official call for the cessation of the violence directed against the Moscow Patriarchate parishes and communities, who are the only canonically recognized Orthodox Church in Ukraine, and who are also the largest by far in that country. The Kyiv Patriarchate and Uniate (Roman oriented) Greek Catholics in Ukraine have gone on record for seizing MP church properties, often by force, with neo-Nazi sympathizers and other radical Ukrainian nationalists. So this official call to cease the violence is now a matter of public record.

However, the reaction has been far less civil than the clergy wished for.

Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko: “Expressing his view of the Moscow Patriarchate, Poroshenko added, “This is a great victory of the God-loving Ukrainian people over the Moscow demons, the victory of Good over Evil, the victory of Light over Darkness.”’

Perhaps this is the reason Metropolitan Onuphry of Ukraine (exarch under the Moscow Patriarchate) has been labeled an enemy of Ukraine and is now receiving death threats. Very civil.

Poroshenko’s statement is all the more bizarre, considering that it has been Ukrainian ultra-nationalists that have been violently attacking Moscow – related parishes in Ukraine. This has been corroborated by news sources eager to pin the blame on Russia, such as the U.K. Guardian.

The Union of Orthodox Journalists, based in Kiev and supportive of the Moscow Patriarchate, has been under intense cyber attack since October 11th, when the EP’s announcement was issued.

Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) Chancellor, Metropolitan Anthony of Boryspil and Brovary: “What happened at the Synod in Istanbul yesterday shocked the entire Orthodox world. It seems the Patriarchate of Constantinople is consciously embarking on a path of schism in world Orthodoxy. Patriarch Bartholomew ignored the calls of the Local Churches to convene a meeting of the primates to work out a common and conciliar solution to the Ukrainian Church issue and unilaterally made very serious but erroneous decisions. I hope the Orthodox world will give this action an objective evaluation… Having received the schismatics into communion, Patriarch Bartholomew did not make them canonical, but has himself embarked on the path of schism. The schismatics remain schismatics. They did not receive any autocephaly or tomos. It seems they have lost even that independence, although non-canonical, that they had and which they always emphasized.”

Metropolitan Rostislav of the Czech Lands and Slovakia:“The Orthodox world recognizes the only canonical primate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church—His Beatitude Metropolitan Onuphry of Kiev and All Ukraine. This fact was repeatedly mentioned and confirmed by the primate of the Great Church of Christ His Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew on behalf of all present at the Synaxis of the Primates of the Local Orthodox Churches that was held in Chambésy (Switzerland) from January 21 to 27, 2016. Therefore, any attempt to legalize the Ukrainian schismatics by the state authorities should be strongly condemned by all the primates of the Local Orthodox Churches.

Patriarch Irinej of Serbia wrote two letters to the Ecumenical Patriarch, advocating that the provision of a new autocephaly is possible only with the consent of all local Orthodox Churches. According to Sedmitza.ru (Translation by Pravoslavie.ru),

“In these letters, it was very clearly stated that the granting of autocephaly cannot be the prerogative the Patriarchate of Constantinople alone, that new autocephalies must be created only with the consent of all the Local Orthodox Churches, as the Holy Synod of Antioch also said in its recent statement.”

Pat. Irinej also warned the Patriarchate of Constantinople against making such major decisions unilaterally, because “it will not bring harmony and peace to the Ukrainian land, but, on the contrary, will cause new divisions and new schisms.”

The Holy Synod of Antioch, the oldest Orthodox Church, and actually the very first place where the disciples of Christ were even called “Christians” weighed in on the issue as well and they had several things to say:

“The fathers examined the general Orthodox situation. They stressed that the Church of Antioch expresses her deep worries about the attempts to change the boundaries of the Orthodox Churches through a new reading of history. She considers that resorting to a unilateral reading of history does not serve Orthodox unity. It rather contributes to the fueling of the dissensions and quarrels within the one Church. Thus, the Church of Antioch refuses the principle of establishing parallel jurisdictions within the canonical boundaries of the Patriarchates and the autocephalous Churches as a way to solve conflicts, or as a de facto situation in the Orthodox world.

To summarize, this move by Constantinople is not being warmly received by many, many people. Most of the local Churches are on record giving their reaction to this process. In brief, here is the list most of the Local Churches and a one or two word summary of their reactions.

Patriarchate of Georgia: Unilateral action is wrong; Constantinople and Moscow must cooperate and find a solution together.

Patriarchate of Jerusalem: recognizes Ukraine as a canonical territory of the Russian Orthodox Church alone, as do all other local Churches

Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa: The Church does not bow to politicians. Moscow-led church is the only canonical Church in Ukraine.

Archbishop of Cyprus: Decries the Ukrainian situation but offered to mediate a discussion between Moscow and Constantinople

Bulgarian Patriarchate: Interference of the State in Church affairs leads to serious and negative consequences for both.

Polish Orthodox Church: Metropolitan Sawa called for a council of Orthodox ruling hierarchs to discuss this situation.

Estonian Orthodox Church: Condemns Constantinople’s actions in Ukraine.

Greek Archdiocese of America: Supports Constantinople’s actions in Ukraine.

The Orthodox Church of Greece (Metropolitan Seraphim of Piraeus quoted): “Schismatics, as we know, are not the Church, and communion with them is forbidden by the Divine and holy canons and the Apostolic and Ecumenical Councils. Why then this persistence of the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew in recognizing schismatics as an autocephalous Church? To provoke schisms and divisions in the one universal and Apostolic Church of Christ?”

Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR): Ceased commemoration of Constantinople, ceased concelebration with Constantinople.

This issue has also rocked the secular geopolitical world.

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Did Saudis, CIA Fear Khashoggi 9/11 Bombshell?

Jamal Khashoggi may have gleaned highly sensitive inside information on what actually happened on 9/11.

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Authored by Finian Cunningham via The Strategic Culture Foundation:


The macabre case of missing journalist Jamal Khashoggi raises the question: did Saudi rulers fear him revealing highly damaging information on their secret dealings? In particular, possible involvement in the 9/11 terror attacks on New York in 2001.

Even more intriguing are US media reports now emerging that American intelligence had snooped on and were aware of Saudi officials making plans to capture Khashoggi prior to his apparent disappearance at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul last week. If the Americans knew the journalist’s life was in danger, why didn’t they tip him off to avoid his doom?

Jamal Khashoggi (59) had gone rogue, from the Saudi elite’s point of view. Formerly a senior editor in Saudi state media and an advisor to the royal court, he was imminently connected and versed in House of Saud affairs. As one commentator cryptically put it: “He knew where all the bodies were buried.”

For the past year, Khashoggi went into self-imposed exile, taking up residence in the US, where he began writing opinion columns for the Washington Post.

Khashoggi’s articles appeared to be taking on increasingly critical tone against the heir to the Saudi throne, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. The 33-year-old Crown Prince, or MbS as he’s known, is de facto ruler of the oil-rich kingdom, in place of his aging father, King Salman.

While Western media and several leaders, such as Presidents Trump and Macron, have been indulging MbS as “a reformer”, Khashoggi was spoiling this Saudi public relations effort by criticizing the war in Yemen, the blockade on Qatar and the crackdown on Saudi critics back home.

However, what may have caused the Saudi royals more concern was what Khashoggi knew about darker, dirtier matters. And not just the Saudis, but American deep state actors as as well.

He was formerly a media aide to Prince Turki al Faisal, who is an eminence gris figure in Saudi intelligence, with its systematic relations to American and British counterparts. Prince Turki’s father, Faisal, was formerly the king of Saudi Arabia until his assassination in 1975 by a family rival. Faisal was a half-brother of the present king, Salman, and therefore Prince Turki is a cousin of the Crown Prince – albeit at 73 more than twice his age.

For nearly 23 years, from 1977 to 2001, Prince Turki was the director of the Mukhabarat, the Saudi state intelligence apparatus. He was instrumental in Saudi, American and British organization of the mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan to combat Soviet forces. Those militants in Afghanistan later evolved into the al Qaeda terror network, which has served as a cat’s paw in various US proxy wars across the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, including Russia’s backyard in the Caucasus.

Ten days before the 9/11 terror attacks on New York City, in which some 3,000 Americans died, Prince Turki retired from his post as head of Saudi intelligence. It was an abrupt departure, well before his tenure was due to expire.

There has previously been speculation in US media that this senior Saudi figure knew in advance that something major was going down on 9/11. At least 15 of the 19 Arabs who allegedly hijacked three commercial airplanes that day were Saudi nationals.

Prince Turki has subsequently been named in a 2002 lawsuit mounted by families of 9/11 victims. There is little suggestion he was wittingly involved in organizing the terror plot. Later public comments indicated that Prince Turki was horrified by the atrocity. But the question is: did he know of the impending incident, and did he alert US intelligence, which then did not take appropriate action to prevent it?

Jamal Khashoggi had long served as a trusted media advisor to Prince Turki, before the latter resigned from public office in 2007. Following 9/11, Turki was the Saudi ambassador to both the US and Britain.

A tentative idea here is that Khashoggi, in his close dealings with Prince Turki over the years, may have gleaned highly sensitive inside information on what actually happened on 9/11. Were the Arab hijackers mere patsies used by the American CIA to facilitate an event which has since been used by American military planners to launch a global “war on terror” as a cover for illegal wars overseas? There is a huge body of evidence that the 9/11 attacks were indeed a “false flag” event orchestrated by the US deep state as a pretext for its imperialist rampages.

The apparent abduction and murder last week of Jamal Khashoggi seems such an astoundingly desperate move by the Saudi rulers. More evidence is emerging from Turkish sources that the journalist was indeed lured to the consulate in Istanbul where he was killed by a 15-member hit squad. Reports are saying that the alleged assassination was ordered at the highest level of the Saudi royal court, which implicates Crown Prince MbS.

Why would the Saudi rulers order such a heinous act, which would inevitably lead to acute political problems, as we are seeing in the fallout from governments and media coverage around the world?

Over the past year, the House of Saud had been appealing to Khashoggi to return to Riyadh and resume his services as a media advisor to the royal court. He declined, fearing that something more sinister was afoot. When Khashoggi turned up in Istanbul to collect a divorce document from the Saudi consulate on September 28, it appears that the House of Saud decided to nab him. He was told to return to the consulate on October 2. On that same day, the 15-member group arrived from Riyadh on two private Gulfstream jets for the mission to kill him.

Official Saudi claims stretch credulity. They say Khashoggi left the consulate building unharmed by a backdoor, although they won’t provide CCTV images to prove that. The Turks say their own CCTV facilities monitoring the front and back of the Saudi consulate show that Khashoggi did not leave the premises. The Turks seem confident of their claim he was murdered inside the building, his remains dismembered and removed in diplomatic vehicles. The two private jets left the same day from Istanbul with the 15 Saudis onboard to return to Riyadh, via Cairo and Dubai.

To carry out such a reckless act, the Saudis must have been alarmed by Khashoggi’s critical commentaries appearing in the Washington Post. The columns appeared to be delivering more and more damaging insights into the regime under Crown Prince MbS.

The Washington Post this week is reporting that US intelligence sources knew from telecom intercepts that the Saudis were planning to abduct Khashoggi. That implicates the House of Saud in a dastardly premeditated act of murder.

But furthermore this same disclosure could also, unwittingly, implicate US intelligence. If the latter knew of a malicious intent towards Khashoggi, why didn’t US agents warn him about going to the Saudi consulate in Istanbul? Surely, he could have obtained the same personal documents from the Saudi embassy in Washington DC, a country where he was residing and would have been safer.

Jamal Khashoggi may have known too many dark secrets about US and Saudi intel collusion, primarily related to the 9/11 terror incidents. And with his increasing volubility as a critical journalist in a prominent American news outlet, it may have been time to silence him. The Saudis as hitmen, the American CIA as facilitators.

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