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7 non-aggression pacts and treaties signed by European countries with Nazi Germany

The interwar period was not one of democracies versus dictatorships, it was one of an ultra-right, fascist central and eastern Europe against an isolated Soviet Union.

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The inter-war period of Europe was not one of burgeoning democracies formed from the ashes of the First World War, but rather, central and Europe were countries that were overwhelmingly far-right dictatorship.

These are just some examples:

HUNGARY: In the interwar years, Hungary was ruled by an ultra-reactionary government most prominently by Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös. 

LATVIA: Latvian dictator Kārlis Ulmanis ruled with an iron far-right fist throughout the interwar years. 

LITHUANIA: Interwar Lithuanian leader Antanas Smetona helped push the country further and further to the proto-fascist right. 

ESTONIA: Konstantin Päts was something of a softer but still strongly nationalist dictator who effectively killed off democracy

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely authoritarian rule. 

And then there was Poland, a country who under the strongman military rule of Józef Piłsudski was the first European power to sign a bilateral non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler, four years prior to the unification of Hitler’s Germany with Austria in the Anschluss.

Here is a list of all the European powers that signed non-aggression pacts with Nazi Germany prior to August of 1939.

1. Poland–1934

The Second Polish Republic was dominated by two political rivals, Józef Piłsudski and Roman Dmowski. Although both figures are venerated in contemporary Poland, each man had a radically different idea about what Poland ought to be.

Józef Piłsudski called for a ‘greater Poland’ which would encompass much of the territory of the once vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which once dominated central and Eastern Europe.

Piłsudski was stridently anti-Russian whilst he totally underestimated and even discounted the coming German threat.

He sought to build a right-wing European federation which would rival and dominate the neighbouring Soviet Union. It was this policy which allowed his country to sleepwalk into the Polish-Soviet War which lasted from 1919-1921. It was Europe’s most protracted conflict of the inter-world war period….

…By contrast, Roman Dmowski favoured the settled post-First World War Polish borders and sought an ethnically and culturally homogenous state that would resist German nationalist ambitions whilst not antagonising the large Soviet state to the East.

Ultimately, Piłsudski’s brand of ‘Greater Polish’ expansionism won the day, leaving Poland dangerously exposed to German aggression which cost Poland dearly during the 1940s

READ MORE: Albania must take a lesson from Poland to avert another Balkan war

What’s more is that Piłsudski’s ambitions were a proximate cause of the Second World War, a war in which Poland suffered greatly.

Piłsudski’s obsession with Russia led him to dismiss threats of German expansionism as well as anti-Polish rhetoric from the fascist regime of Adolf Hitler.

In 1934, Piłsudski’s Foreign Minister Józef Beck helped cement a German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, years before the British engineered Munich Agreement of 1938, let alone the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939.

Although Poland’s attempts to create a new central/eastern European bloc never succeeded, it did accomplish two deeply unhelpful things.

First of all, because Roman Dmowski’s warnings about Germany were ignored, Poland actually sleep-walked into allowing German aggression against Polish lands which by September of 1939 erupted into the proximate cause of the Second World War in Europe.

Secondly, Piłsudski’s ambitions which he continued to promote long after the USSR adopted the anti-imperialist policy of ‘Socialism in One State’, actually helped to drum up support for militant far-right regimes throughout Europe.

Poland was blinded by mutual aggression against Czechoslovakia and mutual loathing of the USSR, that it got in bed with the country that would invade it in 1939, thus formally beginning the Second World War.

2. Britain–1935 and 1938

In 1935, London and Berlin signed the Anglo-German Naval Pact which guaranteed that the tonnage of the Kriegsmarine (Germany Navy) would never exceed 35% percent of that of the Royal Navy (British Navy).

In 1938, Britain and Germany again signed a pact, this time the Munich Agreement in which Britain allowed Hitler to invade and occupy part of Czechoslovakia. Britain of course had no right to to speak on Czechoslovakia’s behalf, giving away the territory of what was the least dictatorial country in central Europe at the time, but this is exactly what Britain did.

3. Romania–1939

The German–Romanian Economic Treaty of 1939 effectively gave Germany control over the entire Romanian economy and consequently the entire Romanian state. Only the Anschluss was a more encompassing treaty.

4. Denmark–1939

In May of 1939 Denmark became the only Scandinavian country to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany. By contrast Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral, although Finland fought the Winter War with the Soviet Union prior to the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War but after the Anglo-French declaration of war on Germany.

5. Italy–1939

In the spring of 1939, Italy signed the so-called ‘Pact of Steel’ with Germany, thus cementing the war time allience of two major fascist powers.

Norway contended itself with a German puppet government run by the infamous Vidkun Quisling

6.  Estonia–1939

On the 7th of June 1939 the Estonian regime of Konstantin Päts, the man who suspended the country’s democracy, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany.

7. Latvia–1939

On the same day as Estonia, Latvia which was then ruled by the proto-fascist dictator Kārlis Ulmanis, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Reich.

By August of 1939, in addition to the aforementioned countries, Hungary, Latvia and  Bulgaria were also firmly in the grip of pro-Nazi governments. By that time all of central and eastern Europe had fascist or far-right governments, with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia. In Southern Europe, the resistance to fascism was led by Hellenic resistance fighters and Yugoslav Partisans led by Tito, the future President of Yugoslavia.

It was only after all of this that the Soviet-Union signed a non-aggression pact with Berlin in August of 1939.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet-Union, thus beginning the Great Patriotic War.

After losing over 27 million people, on the 9th of May 1945, the USSR could rightly say it helped defeated fascism.

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Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Beneš was forced to resign on 5 October 1938, under German pressure. He later fled the German Occupation of Czechoslovakia to England (Although he was a coward and most likely higher ranking freemason).

He was NO Nazi Puppet or authoritarian like the other leaders and countries you mention. Please get your facts straight!

Czechoslovakia was occupied and dismembered by Nazi Germany.

Slovakia was allowed to form a Nazi Puppet Regime under Tiso.

Bohemia and Moravia (Czech lands) were absorbed as a protectorate and under German Nazi Occupation. My relatives and neighbours relatives died under German Occupation of Moravia!

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Lots of people died under German occupation. Most from Typhus. But you ramble on about Czechoslovakia being dismembered by the Germans….WOW….This was German land illegally taken from Germany by Third parties…read that again!!!
Check the lists of all the German speaking Kingdoms/Princedoms and Duchies that united into the German Reich in 1871 which was dismembered BY the Versailles Treaty creating by fiat Czechoslovakia out of thin air and Poland etc. You cannot absorbed a land that belongs to you in the first place. It was German territory.
Dying is not an accomplishment…. It’s part of war.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

My relative and neigbours relatives were executed by the Nazi German Regime, they didn’t just die. It was only “German Land” because of banning and attempting to destroy Czech Language after Czechs/Moravians lost the battle of White Mountain to the so called Holy Roman Empire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_White_Mountain They were still Lands with a majority Czech Speaking and Slavic Population. However with German immigration for 300 years, Germans became the majority in areas called the Sudetenland. This was slow ethnic cleansing and forced assimilation of the Slavic Population by official decree. The Czech Language was forbidden to be used in education, business… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

The Minister/pastor that Christened me in the Netherlands was put against the wall and summarily shot because some young idiot in the resistance thought it was a good idea to kill a German. The Roman Empire did not recognize borders…. Every region has different laguages and cultures. IN the Netherlands which is a small country there is one province called Friesland where people speak Friesian. Their Bible is in Friesian. All Friesian names end in “ma” or “stra” Officially the English language hails from the Dutch and Friesian, Now I do recognize some Dutch words in the old English but… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Facts based on historical record that I posted here, that you wishfully choose to ignore.

We Czechs and Moravians always lived in our lands, (since 8-9th Century) long before the German Speaking Minority arrived in Sudetenland. We did not just magically appear in those lands in 1918 out of nowhere. We were subjugated by the Holy Roman Empire, represented by German Speakers. And BTW we are still living in our lands today, as a majority.

It is actually your “facts” that are based on wishful thinking.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Rastislav Veľká Morav, is the history of Chamberlain’s plot to push Germany eastwards to destroy USSR well known among Czechs? This history is mostly suppressed in western world. If you open a typical book on WWII written by western historians, you won’t find the real reasons for why UK gave into Hitler’s demands in 1938-1939. They will give you garbage propaganda. “And by this date, certain members of the Milner Group and of the British Conservative government had reached the fantastic idea that they could kill two birds with one stone by setting Germany and Russia against one another in… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Bankotsu. Most Czechs,and Moravians believe that they were betrayed for the sake of appeasement. However many do believe that we should of fought and that it was that Government’s cowardice and meek obedience.

What you have written is probably the real truth as Hitler was financed by the Banking Houses and Prescott Bushes, in order to immediately take on the Soviet Union.

Silesians/Moravians in Frydek Mistek were the only ones disobey the orders to stand down after the commanding officer committed suicide.
http://military.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_Czajánek%27s_barracks

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I have researched the topic of pre WWII UK appeasement policy for a long time and what I said above is 100% truth.

There are very few books written in english that tell the truth about UK’s agenda pre WWII. Most of the true history is suppressed. But one of the best books which reveals the truth is Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope:

http://www.carrollquigley.net/books.htm

Read chapters VI and XII for the explainations on why UK pushed Germany eastwards to destroy Soviet Union.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Living in certain areas does not make it a country…You are speaking of ideology/language/culture I am speaking of geography and official boundaries. In 1918 it was summarily decided via the Versailles Treaty to designate out of certain German regions a number of altogether new countries.Czechoslovakia was one of them, regardless of who lived there. All this “my land” did not work out so well for Czechoslovakia did it? Thanks to Vaclav Havel’s wisdom, all the differences between the Czechs and the Slovaks were handled peacefully and they split…So much for the “OUR people” mentality. If you look at the Kurdish… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Vaclav Havel was a member of the Club of Rome, 32 degree Freemason and puppet. He is known as the Humanitarian Bomber of the Serbs, as that is what he called the NATO aggression on Serbia. Why bring his name into this, to muddy the waters? Speaking of the Serbs, they were under the Ottoman Turks for 400 years, occupied by them as we Czechs and Moravians were occupied under German Speaking Roman Catholics for 300 years, who officially abolished the Czech Language and attempted to Germanise us after 1620. The Czechs and Moravian Slavic Speakers were always the overwhelming… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

There was a rather long response which somehow disappeared.
I really lack the energy or the interest to repeat what I said.
You live in a world of your own creation. Vaclav Havel was a highly respected Poet, Playwrite/Political prisoner/ first President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

“Always seek the company of those who seek God
But of those who have found him
Run as fast as you can.”
Vaclav Havel

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I seem to remember an exchange with you on so called gender identity. You stated how you were proud that the Netherlands Government supports so called “Gender Identity” and that I would be put in jail for my views (actually facts), if I were living there.

I wonder if I wanted to identity as a toddler, horse or another animal, would that be tolerated in the Netherlands,? 🙂

Let’s just leave it at that…The readers can judge, as it is quite clear who is living in a world of its own creation.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Your memory is wrong…I have never discussed the issue of Gender Identity. I HAVE reported that The Netherlands was the first country that accepted same-sex marriages and adoptions and that to that end they changed all official documentation and REMOVED all terminology hat was gender specific, changing it to the neutral term “PARTNER” Which has nothing to do with “Gender Identity”:!!! Artikel 1 of Section 1 of the Dutch Constitution states: “Any discrimination on the basis of Gender, Religion, Race OR Lifestyle is forbidden” I have no idea what views you hold, but if they ARE discriminatory to anyone you… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

There are only two biological genders, which cannot be changed, no matter the amount of surgery and hormone therapy. Therefore to remove gender specific terminology, is lying and misleading. They are only “identifying” as a gender, that they are not, and will never be. Moreover, it seems you are proud of and approve of the Netherlands Legislation that you have described. That is disturbing in in itself. So in that logic you would be a bigot to prevent someone who wants to “identify” as a small child or animal. So the readers can hopefully recognize that you are confused about… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Oh boy, how to deal with the ignorance of religious indoctrination. Is the world still flat? Removing gender specific language leaves in place equal value and equal rights no matter what the public or religious freaks believe it to be. I, for one, could not care less as to who sleeps with whom….Got it.? Your premise that somehow YOU are ENTITLED to judge that issue and implying that those who don’t follow YOUR myopic views are…. what was it bigots? is lunacy And yes, if you lived in the Netherlands and were to openly promote your views you will be… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my judgments but scientific fact! You haven’t stopped with your Pro-German “racist” imperialist drivel on this page so far.
In addition you are putting words into my mouth and bringing religion into this, where I never did. You are mentally sick. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Science has NOTHING to do with how love is experienced, or practiced. Many very old church paintings on wood panels show 2 men marrying. The Greeks practiced it. It is Paulinist teachings that judges it and has indoctrinated weak minded people who are easily manipulated into believing that one sort of people are bad and the others are good by the way they practice LOVE. But it always comes back to sex!! Of course those who judge are always good. YOU have a hang-up on Sex buddy. That too is Paulinist I have encountered people like you before. They are… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. You fail to “tolerate” the fact that Czech, Moravian and Silesian Speaking Slavs always were the majority in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, regardless of Holy Roman German Speaking Catholic Occupation and official persecution. This is based on historical fact with links provided. 2. I repeated a basic scientific fact, that there are only two biological genders. Feelings and misguided man-made laws do not change that. You then hysterically proceed to bring religion and now “gay” people into it, and assume that I have a hang-up on sex. It looks to me like you’re projecting. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

1. Is entirely irrelevant, After the 30 year long religious war between the RC and the Protestants was over it became the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Prussia. That there were different languages is common. To imply that is signifies anything more than that is nonsense. The Religious Roman war was over in 1648 2. No one contests the fact that there are TWO genders… It is the Paulinist indoctrination that this is meant solely for reproduction and that every other activity NOT related to reproductions is therefore a sin and to be condemned,. History is however full… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. They were and are Slavic lands as they contain a Slavic Speaking Majority and they will always be Czech, Moravian, and Silesian Lands, belonging to Slavic People, no matter any occupier, past, present or future. Nothing you can do about it, and no quantity of your written nonsense here will change that fact. Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 to represent that majority, living in its boundaries. 2. There are only two biological genders meaning that every person is designated the gender that they are, from birth. “Identifying” or “feelings” cannot change this in any way. To digress is nonsense.… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Oh, and with your expressed views, you would be tolerated, (but might find yourself being knocked out) in the Czech Republic. I have been to the Netherlands a number of times. And like the rest of the western world, it is regressing. Good luck to them.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_National_Revival Following the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Czech lands experienced Germanisation politics spearheaded by the Habsburg Emperors. The oppression was also connected with religion – up to 95% of the inhabitants of Bohemia were Protestants (See Hussite) when the Habsburgs took power. Although the Habsburgs had promised freedom of religion, they started rampant anti-Reformation and re-Catholization efforts which made most of the Czech elites flee the country. This violent re-Catholization has been suggested to be one of the reasons behind today’s widespread Czech atheism. During the two following centuries the Czech language had been more or less eradicated… Read more »

Constantine
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Constantine

Pretty much correct. I would add that while the Czechoslovak crisis over Sudetenland deepened, there was one country that started making preparations to aid Czechoslovakia and that was the USSR. Still, Benes informed them that he would not opt for war without western support. An interesting detail: Poland vehemently refused to aid Czechoslovakia (as it was about to seize a small chunk of the country) and went so far as to undermine Soviet efforts to support Benes. The US ambassador in Paris, William Bullitt, reported that his Polish counterpart, Lukacsiewicz, told him that Poland would join Germany in the case… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Thank you for that.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Czechoslovakia should have fought in 1938.

USSR and Czechs combined could have won against Germany.

Fero Dibarbora
Guest
Fero Dibarbora

To nase Slovensko nemalo moc na vyber. Ked sapodpisal pakt Polsko-Nemecky pakt, tak MZV vyhlasil, ze Polsko uz sa neciti byt viazane mierovymi dohoodami a v buducnosti ocakava spolocne Polsko Madarske hranice. Ja osobne povazujem Tisov stat, za kolaborantsky, ale taktiez vidim, ze vela inych moznosti nebolo. Bud byt vazalom Nemecka s vlastnym statom, alebo zaniknut pod Polskom a Madarskom. Mimochodom Poliaci zamietli pred Mnichovom mozny presun sovietskych vojsk na pomoc CSR v pripade potreby…

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Souhlas.

btheist
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btheist
Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Immediately after Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia, Poland used the opportunity to invade Czech Territory and took all of Czech Silesia for themselves.

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Typical czechist crap😂 And in 1919 the same territory including half of a Free City Cieszyn was invaded by Marsians and after killing ca 3000 Polish defendants and locals it was gifted to masonic project called czechoslovakia which soon after invaded (with a help from Mars 😆) ethnic Hungarian territory to expand eastern borders of its pseudo state (which is no more😂after another German-led split some 22 years back)! And in 1939 they took 6 year mental vacation (but industry full steem for German war effort) with German pseudo occupation (protectorate indeed😎) and in May 1945 had a week of… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Totally and factually wrong diarrhea.

You Russophobic Jesuit and Vatican Controlled Useful Idiot Polish Government think that we Czechs, Moravians and Slovakians are really Poles and should join you.

Never going to happen!

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Join who? GERMAN vomit?😂😂😂

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

We are Slavs, different than Poles, where it has been proven that the Ashkenazi (ie: Khazarian) Haplogroup is very prevalent.

We will not join any sort of Comedic Fantasy Empire Projects of Poles,like the current reiteration, so called Three Seas Initiative.

We are moving towards Russia along with Hungary.

Walter Dublanica
Member
Walter Dublanica

Good that Slavs join up with each other. What is the Haplogroup?

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Genetic Haplogroups of Poles have heavy Ashkenazi (Khazar) Concentrations.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You talk absolute nonsense.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Silesia was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and was German.
The Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Silesia was conquered by Prussia only in 1742.

It originated in 8th-9th century and was part of the Great Moravian Empire with majority Slavic Speaking population up until today.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

And the U.S. belonged to the Native Indians and a war between Britain and “other colonial immigrants” took place after which in 1776 the immigrant elite declared American independence and the genocide of the Natives became legal.
Should the world do something about that, you think?
In the 8th-9th century most people could neither read nor write so the “writing” was done by interested parties, which had little if anything to do with any reality.
But keep dreaming your ideology.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Yes the only way to take the territory is to completely wipe out the original culture and language of the subjugated people and become the majority, leaving no trace.
This did not happen in Silesia, Slavs remain the majority.
Therefore there are only two conclusions: You are trolling poorly, or you are simply stupid.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

After France, Great Britain and the Nazis carved Czechoslovakia in 1938. Italy, Austria, Spain, Romania , the Baltics, were all Hitler’s allies. The United States waited until December 1941 to declare war to Germany (they even had a pro-Hitler ambassador in UK – Joe Kennedy Sr.). It was then clear to the Soviet Union, that US and the rest of Europe DID NOT want to fight against Hitler. So the pact of non-aggression signed with Germany, was only logical. Less than two years later, on June 22, 1941, Hitler broke the pact (which he never intended to respect) and invaded… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Another Einstein! roll eyes

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

“CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech
politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of
his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely
authoritarian rule.”

Don’t think that correct. Benes’ rule was a largely democratic rule.

Czechoslovakia was one of the most democratic and least repressive states in europe during 1920s, 30s.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I think this article forgot the 1938 German-French treaty.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

Exactly. And the Anschluss, the occupation of Austria, in 1938 too.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

ahum…..Daisy…..After the 3 year miraculous recovery IN Germany after its total destruction in WW1. Having been entirely broken up…The Austrians who were still struggling after WW1 and the depression BEGGED Germany to allow it to join it. That is what Anschluss means…It means JOINING….There was NO occupation and every Austrian young man became part of the German army…..I know this because the Dutch resistance brought us a Austrian deserter with a death sentence on his head. He became my uncle. I am still in touch with his children in Vienna. “The Sound of Music” and the von Trapp family was… Read more »

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

“Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral”

“Neutral” , my foot. Sweden provided nazi Germany it the iron ore, necessary to the weapons industry, and even had its own SS brigade of 11,000 voluntaries, who fought against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. As “neutral” as Switzeland , which sheltered in its banks’ coffers the gold and artworks stolen by the nazis.

Ivan Grozny
Guest
Ivan Grozny

Also, little known but a fact – Sweden allowed the transfer of soldiers, including their weapons, by train, from the south all the way to the northern border with Norway!

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Tragedy of Czechoslovakia was that in September 1938, by most estimates, it had a more powerful military than Germany. It should have fought in 1938.

But UK under Chamberlain had a completely different agenda of pushing Germany eastwards to destroy USSR.

http://www.yamaguchy.com/library/quigley/anglo_12b.html

“Dr. Quigley explains how Nazi Germany seized a stronger Czechoslovakia”

http://www.carrollquigley.net/misc/Quigley_explains_how_Germany_conquered_Czechoslovakia.htm

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Czechoslovakia was until 1918 the German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia. So after the German Empire was created by unifying all these German Kingdoms etc into one large country called Germany in 1871 Britain/France and the U.S have done nothing but try to break up this German Reich. Germany did not create WW1 nor WW2. Britain/France and the US did. The Versailles Treaty chopped up Germany and Poland was created from the Kingdom of Prussia. and the Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s aim was to restore Germany as much as possible. Now why would the Germans in Czechoslovakia fight against… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

It was only German Speaking because of attempted official Vatican Jesuit eradication of Czech Language since the defeat at the battle of White Mountain.

The Czech Hussites should have adopted the imperial mindset of the Anglo Saxon and German Western Mentality when they conquered up to part of Germany, but did not stay.
This is typical of Slavs, as we just want to be left in peace to live and prosper.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Whatever….go ahead make up your own history.
Who’s we…Poland?
Who’s THEY “conquered up part of Germany but did not stay”?
You giving me brain cramp here.
Seems your brain goes way faster than your fingers. And while I am sure you have some coherent thoughts in your head they do not appear in these pages.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I Stated “Slavs” and then “we” as I am one, so are the Czechs, and so were the Hussites, in my last comment

I Stated “Hussites” and then referred to them as “they” in my last comment.

It seems you have a reading comprehension issue, responding to something you only imagined to have actually read.

There is no made up history in my comment, just fact, that apparently doesn’t support your particular beliefs, as per your previous comment.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Resorting to Local names does not help your cause. The Check Hussites did not conquer Germany. Czechoslovakia was the Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918 whether you like it or not. So Czechoslovakia was an artificial country that rightfully was part of Germany since 1871 and was illegally cut off from /Germany by the Versailles Treaty. So to speak of Hitler occupying Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) is absurd. Hussites are a local form of Christianity and why that should have entered into this discussion beats me. Hitler’s aim was to reunite German land with Germany… After WW2 there was whole scale ethnic cleaning… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my cause, but Historical Facts.
Thanks to the Hussites which were Czech Slavic National resistance to Roman Catholics and German Speakers. For two centuries Czech and Moravian Lands were free and Czech Speaking, thanks to the Hussites.
It wasn’t until 1620 when the Holy Roman Empire won the battle of White Mountain, that forced an official Germanization Policy, German immigration began and Czech Language was banned.

Your failure to comprehend is because of your reading comprehension issues, detailed for you in my last comment.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Campaigns of 1426 and 1427 (fourth anti-Hussite Crusade): In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. The Hussites subsequently invaded… Read more »

Constantine
Guest
Constantine

Czechoslovakia was not part of Germany, but of Austria-Hungary. The German minority region was the Sudeten borderland. The rest of the country wasn’t German speaking. And despite Nazi claims, the Czechoslovak authorities did not oppress the Germans. As for the Versailles Treaty, one may debate whether it was harsh or not. But it wasn’t illegal, since the Germans lost the war. Considering the far more draconian terms that the Germans imposed upon Russia in Brest-Litovsk – while they were under pressure to make peace in the east as soon as possible – one can only imagine what they had in… Read more »

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I’ll go with Quigley.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

That’s because you did not survive that war while I did.

The Narrator
Guest
The Narrator

NOOOOO IT’S THE FAULT OF THE PERSON WHO SHOT ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND! and the first people who declared war are the Brits and French!

samo war
Guest
samo war

adolffH was cia project ?

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

What a mega dose of horse shit this Russian propaganda article is😂😆😈 Bolshevics were not once but twice saved from total wipe out under combined Polish army and remnants of zarist armies in 1919 and in 1920 only because prusso-Germany was able to influence not just Piłsudski but also Dmowski!!! Moscow would have been cleared in days if the offensive were not stopped! Had Polish forces joined on either occasion with white Russians, Moscow would now be a provincial city in central Russia totally devoid of bolshevia scum which has infested that city and continues to produce such propaganda as… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You’ve got your dates screwed up….The Tsar was dead in 1918 and Prussia had become Poland as per the Versailles Treaty in 1917 which broke up Germany. Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Let me remind you that it was the Soviets that decimated the German Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, at the cost of 27 million Russian lives. THEY won the war. It was only 2.5 years later that the allies landed in Normandy for the mop up action and to make sure the Soviets would not overrun the whole of Europe. THEY preferred to do that themselves. Poland is an artificial country. In… Read more »

Vera Gottlieb
Guest
Vera Gottlieb

Wasn’t WW 1 to be the war to end all wars? And we are still not done with wars and more wars.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Adam you forgot Bulgaria, a German Nazi Ally.
Could it be to not offend the sensibilities of your friend, Nedka?

That being said I appreciate your well written articles and thinking, and your interviews with Nedka.
You are however Factually wrong here in this article, about Czechoslovakia.

Bessarabyn
Guest
Bessarabyn

Thanks. One correction : ” resistance to fascism was ” first led by the monarchist Serb General Mihailovitsch with brave allyugoslav men (and women) until treacherous Albion cut them off and sent all armaments nand supplies to the communist Croat Tito . He wrote : > I have outsmarted and deceived that old fox Churchill <. It was the Oxfordian armchair socialist poofters and the NWO servant Churchill himself who killed the strongest opposition on the Balkans. They then dismantled the state of Yugoslavia and of Serbia. caused the death of 250 000 human beings , created fake "states" and… Read more »

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Photos of swastika on Ukrainian mall stairway creates a stir [Video]

Ukrainian nationalist press in damage-control mode to explain away the Nazi sign, but they forgot the name of the street the mall is on.

Seraphim Hanisch

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One of the aspects of news about Ukraine that does not make it past the gatekeepers of the American and Western news media is how a significant contingent of Ukrainian nationalists have espoused a sense of reverence for Nazis. The idea that this could even happen anywhere in the world in an open manner makes the claim seem too absurd to be taken seriously. Gone are the days when the Nazi swastika adorned streets and buildings in Europe. Right?

Well, maybe, wrong.

This was seen in Kyiv’s Gorodok (or Horodok, if you insist) Gallery, a shopping center in that city, located on Bandera Avenue.

The pro-nationalist news service UNIAN wasted no time going to press with their explanation of this incident, which admittedly may be accurate:

Children and teenagers who participated in the All-Ukrainian break dance festival held in the Kyiv-based Gorodok Gallery shopping mall were shocked to see a swastika image projected onto an LED staircase.

The mall administration apologized to visitors, explaining saying that their computer system had apparently been hacked.

“The administration and staff have no relation to whatever was projected onto the LED-staircase, and in no way does it support such [an] act. Now we are actively searching for those involved in the attack,” it said in a statement.

According to Gorodok Gallery’s administrative office, it was not the first time a cyber breach took place.

As reported earlier, Ukraine is believed to be a testing ground for cyberattacks, many of which are launched from Russia. Hackers have earlier targeted critical energy infrastructure, state institutions, banks, and large businesses.

This time, it appears, hackers aimed to feed the Kremlin’s narrative of “Nazis in power in Ukraine” and create a relevant hype-driving viral story for Russian media to spread it worldwide.

The Gorodok Gallery also apologized on its Facebook page and said that this was a result of hacking.

But what about the street that the mall is on? From the self-same Facebook page, this is what we see:


To translate, for those who do not read Ukrainian or Russian, the address says the following:

23 Steven Bandera Prospekt, Kyiv, Ukraine 04073

This street was formerly called “Moscow Avenue.” Big change, as we shall see.

Steven Bandera got his birthday designated as a national holiday in Ukraine last December. He is known in Ukraine’s history for one thing. According to the Jerusalem Post:

The street where the shopping mall is located is named for Stepan Bandera, a Ukrainian nationalist who briefly collaborated with Nazi Germany in its fight against Russia.

His troops are believed to have killed thousands of Jews.

Several Israeli papers picked this bit of news up, and of course, the reasons are understandable. However, for the West, it appears possible that this news event will largely go unnoticed, even by that great nation that is often called “Israel’s proxy”, the United States.

This is probably because for certain people in the US, there is a sense of desperation to mask the nature of events that are happening in Ukraine.

The usual fare of mainstream news for the West probably consists of things like “Putin’s military seizes innocent Ukrainian sailors in Kerch incident” or, “Ukraine’s Orthodox Church declared fully independent by Patriarch of Constantinople” (not that too many Americans know what a Constantinople even is, anyway), but the overriding narrative for the American people about this country is “Ukraine are the good guys, and Russia are the bad guys,” and this will not be pushed aside, even to accommodate the logical grievance of Israel to this incident.

If this article gets to Western papers at all, it will be the UNIAN line they adhere to, that evil pro-Russia hackers caused this stairway to have a swastika to provoke the idea that Ukraine somehow supports Naziism.

But UNIAN neglected to mention that the street name was recently changed to Stephan Bandera (in 2016), and no one appears to have hacked this. Nor does UNIAN talk about the Azov fighters that openly espoused much of the Nazi ideology. For nationalist Ukrainians, this is all for the greater good of getting rid of all things Russia.

A further sad fact about this is the near impossibility of getting assuredly honest and neutral information about this and other similar happenings. Both Ukrainian nationalists and Russian media agencies have dogs in the race, so to speak. They are both personally connected to these events. However, the Russian media cannot be discounted here, because they do offer a witness and perspective, probably the closest to any objective look at what is going on in Ukraine. We include a video of a “torchlight march” that took place in 2017 that featured such hypernationalist activity, which is not reported in the West.

More such reports are available, but this one seemed the best one to summarize the character of what is going on in the country.

While we do not know the motive and identities of whoever programmed the swastika, it cannot really be stated that this was just a random publicity stunt in a country that has no relationship with Nazi veneration.

The street the mall is on bears witness to that.

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It’s Back to the Iran-Contra Days Under Trump

Abrams and his cronies will not stop with Venezuela.

Strategic Culture Foundation

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Authored by Wayne Madsen, via The Strategic Culture Foundation:


Showing that he is adopting the neoconservative playbook every day he remains in office, Donald Trump handed the neocons a major win when he appointed Iran-contra scandal felon Elliott Abrams as his special envoy on Venezuela. Abrams pleaded guilty in 1991 to two counts of withholding information on the secret sale of US weapons for cash to help illegally supply weapons to the Nicaraguan right-wing contras, who were battling against the government of President Daniel Ortega. Abrams would have headed to a federal prison, but President George H. W. Bush, an unindicted co-conspirator in the scandal, issued pardons to Abrams and his five fellow conspirators – former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, former National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane, and former Central Intelligence Agency officials Alan Fiers, Duane “Dewey” Clarridge, and Clair George – on Christmas Eve 1991, during the final weeks of Bush’s lame duck administration.

Abrams escaped being charged with more serious crimes by Independent Counsel Lawrence Walsh because he cut a last-minute deal with federal prosecutors. Trump, who has made no secret of his disdain for cooperating federal witnesses, would have normally called Abrams a “rat,” a gangster term meaning informant. The man who helped engineer the pardons for Abrams and his five convicted friends was none other than Bush’s Attorney General, William Barr, who has just been sworn in as Trump’s Attorney General. Trump, who is always decrying the presence of the “deep state” that thwarts his very move, has become the chief guardian of that entity.

During a recent hearing of the US House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee, newly-minted congresswoman Ilhan Omar, Democrat of Minnesota, reminded her colleagues and the world about the sordid background of Abrams.

Omar zeroed in on Abrams’s criminal history:

“Mr. Abrams, in 1991 you pleaded guilty to two counts of withholding information from Congress regarding the Iran-Contra affair, for which you were later pardoned by President George H.W. Bush. I fail to understand why members of this committee or the American people should find any testimony you give today to be truthful.”

Abrams, as is the nature of neocons, refused to respond to Omar and cited her comments as “personal attacks.”

Abrams’s and his fellow criminals’ use of mercenaries and “death squads” to conduct secret wars in Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala during the Ronald Reagan administration in the 1980s has made a re-entrance under Trump. Abrams was brought on board by neocons like National Security Adviser John Bolton, Vice President Mike Pence, and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to oversee a US military build-up in Colombia, said to be 5000 US troops, to support Venezuelan paramilitary and military efforts to topple President Nicolas Maduro. Abrams and Bolton are also believed to have retained the services of another unindicted conspirator in the Iran-contra affair, Michael Ledeen, a colleague of the disgraced and convicted former Trump National Security Adviser, retired Lieutenant General Michael Flynn. Ledeen and Flynn co-authored a book titled, “The Field of Fight: How We Can Win the Global War Against Radical Islam and its Allies.” The book contains nothing more than the standard neocon tripe one might expect from the likes of Ledeen.

An official investigation of the Iran-contra scandal by the late Republican Senator John Tower of Texas concluded that Abrams’s and Ledeen’s friend, Iranian-Jewish middleman Manucher Ghorbanifar, a long-time Mossad asset and well-known prevaricator, was extremely instrumental in establishing the back-channel arms deals with Iran. Ghorbanifar has long been on the CIA “burn list” as an untrustworthy charlatan, along with others in the Middle East of similar sketchy credentials, including the Iraq’s Ahmad Chalabi, Syria’s Farid “Frank” Ghadry, and Lebanon’s Samir “Sami” Geagea. These individuals, however, were warmly embraced by neocons like Abrams and his associates.

Abrams, whose links with Israeli intelligence has always been a point of consternation with US counter-intelligence officials, is part of an old cabal of right-wing anti-Soviet Democrats who coalesced around Senator Henry Jackson in the 1970s. Along with Abrams, this group of war hawks included Richard Perle, Frank Gaffney, William Kristol, Douglas Feith, Lewis “Scooter” Libby, Abram Shulsky, and Paul Wolfowitz. Later, this group would have its fingerprints on major US foreign policy debacles, ranging from Nicaragua and Grenada to Lebanon, Iraq, and Libya. Later, in December 2000, these neocons managed to convince president-elect George W. Bush of the need to “democratize” the Middle East. That policy would later bring not democracy but disaster to the Arab Middle East and North Africa.

Abrams and his cronies will not stop with Venezuela. They have old scores to settle with Nicaraguan President Ortega. The initiation of “regime change” operations in Nicaragua, supported by the CIA and the US Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) in Miami, have been ongoing for more than a year.

The Trump administration has already achieved a regime change victory of sorts in El Salvador. Nayib Bukele, the former mayor of San Salvador, who was expelled from the formerly-ruling left-wing Farabundo Marti National Liberation (FMLN) party and joined the right-wing GANA party, was recently elected president of El Salvador. Bukele has quickly re-aligned his country’s policies with those of the Trump administration. Bukele has referred to President Maduro of Venezuela as a “dictator.” He has also criticized the former FMLN government’s recognition of China and severance of diplomatic ties with Taiwan. It will be interesting to see how a sycophant like Bukele will politically survive as Trump continues to call hapless asylum-seeking migrants from his country, who seek residency in the United States, “rapists, gang monsters, murderers, and drug smugglers.”

Another country heading for a US-installed “banana republic” dictator is Haiti. President Jovenal Moise has seen rioting in the streets of Port-au-Prince as the US State Department removed all “non-essential” personnel from the country. Moise, whose country has received $2 billion in oil relief from Venezuela, to help offset rising fuel prices, has continued to support the Maduro government. However, at the US-run and neo-colonial artifice, the Organization of American States (OAS), Moise’s envoys have been under tremendous pressure to cut ties with Venezuela and recognize the US puppet Juan Guaido as Venezuelan president. Moise’s refusal to do so resulted in armed gangs hitting the streets of Port-au-Prince demanding Moise’s resignation. It is the same neocon “regime change” playbook being used in Venezuela and Nicaragua.

There will be similar attempts to replace pro-Maduro governments in his remaining allies in the region. These include Suriname, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Abrams was also brought in as an adviser on Middle East policy in the George W. Bush administration. The carnage of Iraq is a stark testament to his record. In 2005, it was reported that two key Bush White House officials – Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove and Deputy National Security Adviser Elliot Abrams – gave a “wink and a nod” for the assassinations by Israeli-paid operatives of three key Lebanese political figures seeking a rapprochement with Syria and Lebanese Hezbollah – Member of Parliament Elie Hobeika, former Lebanese Communist Party chief George Hawi, and former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.

In 2008, a United Nations panel headed by former Canadian prosecutor Daniel Bellemare later concluded Hariri was assassinated by a “criminal network” and not by either Syrian and Lebanese intelligence or Lebanese Hezbollah as proffered by Abrams and his friends in Washington.

Representative Omar was spot on in questioning why Abrams, whose name is as disgraced as his two fellow conspirators – Oliver North and John Poindexter – whose criminal convictions were overturned on appeal, is working for the Trump administration on Venezuela. The answer is that the neocons, who can sense, like raptors, Trump’s political weakness, have filled the vacuum left by top-level vacancies in the administration.

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Putin: If mid-range missiles deployed in Europe, Russia will station arms to strike decision centers

Putin: If US deploys mid-range missiles in Europe, Russia will be forced to respond.

RT

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Via RT…


If the US deploys intermediate-range missiles in Europe, Moscow will respond by stationing weapons aimed not only against missiles themselves, but also at command and control centers, from which a launch order would come.

The warning came from President Vladimir Putin, who announced Russia’s planned actions after the US withdraws from the INF Treaty – a Cold War-era agreement between Washington and Moscow which banned both sides form having ground-based cruise and ballistic missiles and developing relevant technology.

The US is set to unilaterally withdraw from the treaty in six months, which opens the possibility of once again deploying these missiles in Europe. Russia would see that as a major threat and respond with its own deployments, Putin said.

Intermediate-range missiles were banned and removed from Europe because they would leave a very short window of opportunity for the other side to decide whether to fire in retaliation after detecting a launch – mere minutes. This poses the threat of an accidental nuclear exchange triggered by a false launch warning, with the officer in charge having no time to double check.

“Russia will be forced to create and deploy weapon systems, which can be used not only against the territories from which this direct threat would be projected, but also against those territories where decision centers are located, from which an order to use those weapons against us may come.” The Russian president, who was delivering a keynote address to the Russian parliament on Wednesday, did not elaborate on whether any counter-deployment would only target US command-and-control sites in Europe or would also include targets on American soil.

He did say the Russian weapon system in terms of flight times and other specifications would “correspond” to those targeting Russia.

“We know how to do it and we will implement those plans without a delay once the relevant threats against us materialize,”he said.

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