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7 non-aggression pacts and treaties signed by European countries with Nazi Germany

The interwar period was not one of democracies versus dictatorships, it was one of an ultra-right, fascist central and eastern Europe against an isolated Soviet Union.

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The inter-war period of Europe was not one of burgeoning democracies formed from the ashes of the First World War, but rather, central and Europe were countries that were overwhelmingly far-right dictatorship.

These are just some examples:

HUNGARY: In the interwar years, Hungary was ruled by an ultra-reactionary government most prominently by Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös. 

LATVIA: Latvian dictator Kārlis Ulmanis ruled with an iron far-right fist throughout the interwar years. 

LITHUANIA: Interwar Lithuanian leader Antanas Smetona helped push the country further and further to the proto-fascist right. 

ESTONIA: Konstantin Päts was something of a softer but still strongly nationalist dictator who effectively killed off democracy

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely authoritarian rule. 

And then there was Poland, a country who under the strongman military rule of Józef Piłsudski was the first European power to sign a bilateral non-aggression pact with Adolf Hitler, four years prior to the unification of Hitler’s Germany with Austria in the Anschluss.

Here is a list of all the European powers that signed non-aggression pacts with Nazi Germany prior to August of 1939.

1. Poland–1934

The Second Polish Republic was dominated by two political rivals, Józef Piłsudski and Roman Dmowski. Although both figures are venerated in contemporary Poland, each man had a radically different idea about what Poland ought to be.

Józef Piłsudski called for a ‘greater Poland’ which would encompass much of the territory of the once vast Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which once dominated central and Eastern Europe.

Piłsudski was stridently anti-Russian whilst he totally underestimated and even discounted the coming German threat.

He sought to build a right-wing European federation which would rival and dominate the neighbouring Soviet Union. It was this policy which allowed his country to sleepwalk into the Polish-Soviet War which lasted from 1919-1921. It was Europe’s most protracted conflict of the inter-world war period….

…By contrast, Roman Dmowski favoured the settled post-First World War Polish borders and sought an ethnically and culturally homogenous state that would resist German nationalist ambitions whilst not antagonising the large Soviet state to the East.

Ultimately, Piłsudski’s brand of ‘Greater Polish’ expansionism won the day, leaving Poland dangerously exposed to German aggression which cost Poland dearly during the 1940s

READ MORE: Albania must take a lesson from Poland to avert another Balkan war

What’s more is that Piłsudski’s ambitions were a proximate cause of the Second World War, a war in which Poland suffered greatly.

Piłsudski’s obsession with Russia led him to dismiss threats of German expansionism as well as anti-Polish rhetoric from the fascist regime of Adolf Hitler.

In 1934, Piłsudski’s Foreign Minister Józef Beck helped cement a German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, years before the British engineered Munich Agreement of 1938, let alone the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939.

Although Poland’s attempts to create a new central/eastern European bloc never succeeded, it did accomplish two deeply unhelpful things.

First of all, because Roman Dmowski’s warnings about Germany were ignored, Poland actually sleep-walked into allowing German aggression against Polish lands which by September of 1939 erupted into the proximate cause of the Second World War in Europe.

Secondly, Piłsudski’s ambitions which he continued to promote long after the USSR adopted the anti-imperialist policy of ‘Socialism in One State’, actually helped to drum up support for militant far-right regimes throughout Europe.

Poland was blinded by mutual aggression against Czechoslovakia and mutual loathing of the USSR, that it got in bed with the country that would invade it in 1939, thus formally beginning the Second World War.

2. Britain–1935 and 1938

In 1935, London and Berlin signed the Anglo-German Naval Pact which guaranteed that the tonnage of the Kriegsmarine (Germany Navy) would never exceed 35% percent of that of the Royal Navy (British Navy).

In 1938, Britain and Germany again signed a pact, this time the Munich Agreement in which Britain allowed Hitler to invade and occupy part of Czechoslovakia. Britain of course had no right to to speak on Czechoslovakia’s behalf, giving away the territory of what was the least dictatorial country in central Europe at the time, but this is exactly what Britain did.

3. Romania–1939

The German–Romanian Economic Treaty of 1939 effectively gave Germany control over the entire Romanian economy and consequently the entire Romanian state. Only the Anschluss was a more encompassing treaty.

4. Denmark–1939

In May of 1939 Denmark became the only Scandinavian country to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany. By contrast Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral, although Finland fought the Winter War with the Soviet Union prior to the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War but after the Anglo-French declaration of war on Germany.

5. Italy–1939

In the spring of 1939, Italy signed the so-called ‘Pact of Steel’ with Germany, thus cementing the war time allience of two major fascist powers.

Norway contended itself with a German puppet government run by the infamous Vidkun Quisling

6.  Estonia–1939

On the 7th of June 1939 the Estonian regime of Konstantin Päts, the man who suspended the country’s democracy, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany.

7. Latvia–1939

On the same day as Estonia, Latvia which was then ruled by the proto-fascist dictator Kārlis Ulmanis, signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Reich.

By August of 1939, in addition to the aforementioned countries, Hungary, Latvia and  Bulgaria were also firmly in the grip of pro-Nazi governments. By that time all of central and eastern Europe had fascist or far-right governments, with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia. In Southern Europe, the resistance to fascism was led by Hellenic resistance fighters and Yugoslav Partisans led by Tito, the future President of Yugoslavia.

It was only after all of this that the Soviet-Union signed a non-aggression pact with Berlin in August of 1939.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet-Union, thus beginning the Great Patriotic War.

After losing over 27 million people, on the 9th of May 1945, the USSR could rightly say it helped defeated fascism.

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Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Beneš was forced to resign on 5 October 1938, under German pressure. He later fled the German Occupation of Czechoslovakia to England (Although he was a coward and most likely higher ranking freemason).

He was NO Nazi Puppet or authoritarian like the other leaders and countries you mention. Please get your facts straight!

Czechoslovakia was occupied and dismembered by Nazi Germany.

Slovakia was allowed to form a Nazi Puppet Regime under Tiso.

Bohemia and Moravia (Czech lands) were absorbed as a protectorate and under German Nazi Occupation. My relatives and neighbours relatives died under German Occupation of Moravia!

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Lots of people died under German occupation. Most from Typhus. But you ramble on about Czechoslovakia being dismembered by the Germans….WOW….This was German land illegally taken from Germany by Third parties…read that again!!!
Check the lists of all the German speaking Kingdoms/Princedoms and Duchies that united into the German Reich in 1871 which was dismembered BY the Versailles Treaty creating by fiat Czechoslovakia out of thin air and Poland etc. You cannot absorbed a land that belongs to you in the first place. It was German territory.
Dying is not an accomplishment…. It’s part of war.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

My relative and neigbours relatives were executed by the Nazi German Regime, they didn’t just die. It was only “German Land” because of banning and attempting to destroy Czech Language after Czechs/Moravians lost the battle of White Mountain to the so called Holy Roman Empire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_White_Mountain They were still Lands with a majority Czech Speaking and Slavic Population. However with German immigration for 300 years, Germans became the majority in areas called the Sudetenland. This was slow ethnic cleansing and forced assimilation of the Slavic Population by official decree. The Czech Language was forbidden to be used in education, business… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

The Minister/pastor that Christened me in the Netherlands was put against the wall and summarily shot because some young idiot in the resistance thought it was a good idea to kill a German. The Roman Empire did not recognize borders…. Every region has different laguages and cultures. IN the Netherlands which is a small country there is one province called Friesland where people speak Friesian. Their Bible is in Friesian. All Friesian names end in “ma” or “stra” Officially the English language hails from the Dutch and Friesian, Now I do recognize some Dutch words in the old English but… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Facts based on historical record that I posted here, that you wishfully choose to ignore.

We Czechs and Moravians always lived in our lands, (since 8-9th Century) long before the German Speaking Minority arrived in Sudetenland. We did not just magically appear in those lands in 1918 out of nowhere. We were subjugated by the Holy Roman Empire, represented by German Speakers. And BTW we are still living in our lands today, as a majority.

It is actually your “facts” that are based on wishful thinking.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Rastislav Veľká Morav, is the history of Chamberlain’s plot to push Germany eastwards to destroy USSR well known among Czechs? This history is mostly suppressed in western world. If you open a typical book on WWII written by western historians, you won’t find the real reasons for why UK gave into Hitler’s demands in 1938-1939. They will give you garbage propaganda. “And by this date, certain members of the Milner Group and of the British Conservative government had reached the fantastic idea that they could kill two birds with one stone by setting Germany and Russia against one another in… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Bankotsu. Most Czechs,and Moravians believe that they were betrayed for the sake of appeasement. However many do believe that we should of fought and that it was that Government’s cowardice and meek obedience.

What you have written is probably the real truth as Hitler was financed by the Banking Houses and Prescott Bushes, in order to immediately take on the Soviet Union.

Silesians/Moravians in Frydek Mistek were the only ones disobey the orders to stand down after the commanding officer committed suicide.
http://military.wikia.com/wiki/Battle_of_Czajánek%27s_barracks

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I have researched the topic of pre WWII UK appeasement policy for a long time and what I said above is 100% truth.

There are very few books written in english that tell the truth about UK’s agenda pre WWII. Most of the true history is suppressed. But one of the best books which reveals the truth is Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope:

http://www.carrollquigley.net/books.htm

Read chapters VI and XII for the explainations on why UK pushed Germany eastwards to destroy Soviet Union.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Living in certain areas does not make it a country…You are speaking of ideology/language/culture I am speaking of geography and official boundaries. In 1918 it was summarily decided via the Versailles Treaty to designate out of certain German regions a number of altogether new countries.Czechoslovakia was one of them, regardless of who lived there. All this “my land” did not work out so well for Czechoslovakia did it? Thanks to Vaclav Havel’s wisdom, all the differences between the Czechs and the Slovaks were handled peacefully and they split…So much for the “OUR people” mentality. If you look at the Kurdish… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Vaclav Havel was a member of the Club of Rome, 32 degree Freemason and puppet. He is known as the Humanitarian Bomber of the Serbs, as that is what he called the NATO aggression on Serbia. Why bring his name into this, to muddy the waters? Speaking of the Serbs, they were under the Ottoman Turks for 400 years, occupied by them as we Czechs and Moravians were occupied under German Speaking Roman Catholics for 300 years, who officially abolished the Czech Language and attempted to Germanise us after 1620. The Czechs and Moravian Slavic Speakers were always the overwhelming… Read more »

my2Cents
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my2Cents

There was a rather long response which somehow disappeared.
I really lack the energy or the interest to repeat what I said.
You live in a world of your own creation. Vaclav Havel was a highly respected Poet, Playwrite/Political prisoner/ first President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

“Always seek the company of those who seek God
But of those who have found him
Run as fast as you can.”
Vaclav Havel

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I seem to remember an exchange with you on so called gender identity. You stated how you were proud that the Netherlands Government supports so called “Gender Identity” and that I would be put in jail for my views (actually facts), if I were living there.

I wonder if I wanted to identity as a toddler, horse or another animal, would that be tolerated in the Netherlands,? 🙂

Let’s just leave it at that…The readers can judge, as it is quite clear who is living in a world of its own creation.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Your memory is wrong…I have never discussed the issue of Gender Identity. I HAVE reported that The Netherlands was the first country that accepted same-sex marriages and adoptions and that to that end they changed all official documentation and REMOVED all terminology hat was gender specific, changing it to the neutral term “PARTNER” Which has nothing to do with “Gender Identity”:!!! Artikel 1 of Section 1 of the Dutch Constitution states: “Any discrimination on the basis of Gender, Religion, Race OR Lifestyle is forbidden” I have no idea what views you hold, but if they ARE discriminatory to anyone you… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

There are only two biological genders, which cannot be changed, no matter the amount of surgery and hormone therapy. Therefore to remove gender specific terminology, is lying and misleading. They are only “identifying” as a gender, that they are not, and will never be. Moreover, it seems you are proud of and approve of the Netherlands Legislation that you have described. That is disturbing in in itself. So in that logic you would be a bigot to prevent someone who wants to “identify” as a small child or animal. So the readers can hopefully recognize that you are confused about… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Oh boy, how to deal with the ignorance of religious indoctrination. Is the world still flat? Removing gender specific language leaves in place equal value and equal rights no matter what the public or religious freaks believe it to be. I, for one, could not care less as to who sleeps with whom….Got it.? Your premise that somehow YOU are ENTITLED to judge that issue and implying that those who don’t follow YOUR myopic views are…. what was it bigots? is lunacy And yes, if you lived in the Netherlands and were to openly promote your views you will be… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my judgments but scientific fact! You haven’t stopped with your Pro-German “racist” imperialist drivel on this page so far.
In addition you are putting words into my mouth and bringing religion into this, where I never did. You are mentally sick. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Science has NOTHING to do with how love is experienced, or practiced. Many very old church paintings on wood panels show 2 men marrying. The Greeks practiced it. It is Paulinist teachings that judges it and has indoctrinated weak minded people who are easily manipulated into believing that one sort of people are bad and the others are good by the way they practice LOVE. But it always comes back to sex!! Of course those who judge are always good. YOU have a hang-up on Sex buddy. That too is Paulinist I have encountered people like you before. They are… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. You fail to “tolerate” the fact that Czech, Moravian and Silesian Speaking Slavs always were the majority in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, regardless of Holy Roman German Speaking Catholic Occupation and official persecution. This is based on historical fact with links provided. 2. I repeated a basic scientific fact, that there are only two biological genders. Feelings and misguided man-made laws do not change that. You then hysterically proceed to bring religion and now “gay” people into it, and assume that I have a hang-up on sex. It looks to me like you’re projecting. Seek help.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

1. Is entirely irrelevant, After the 30 year long religious war between the RC and the Protestants was over it became the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Prussia. That there were different languages is common. To imply that is signifies anything more than that is nonsense. The Religious Roman war was over in 1648 2. No one contests the fact that there are TWO genders… It is the Paulinist indoctrination that this is meant solely for reproduction and that every other activity NOT related to reproductions is therefore a sin and to be condemned,. History is however full… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

1. They were and are Slavic lands as they contain a Slavic Speaking Majority and they will always be Czech, Moravian, and Silesian Lands, belonging to Slavic People, no matter any occupier, past, present or future. Nothing you can do about it, and no quantity of your written nonsense here will change that fact. Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 to represent that majority, living in its boundaries. 2. There are only two biological genders meaning that every person is designated the gender that they are, from birth. “Identifying” or “feelings” cannot change this in any way. To digress is nonsense.… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Oh, and with your expressed views, you would be tolerated, (but might find yourself being knocked out) in the Czech Republic. I have been to the Netherlands a number of times. And like the rest of the western world, it is regressing. Good luck to them.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_National_Revival Following the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, Czech lands experienced Germanisation politics spearheaded by the Habsburg Emperors. The oppression was also connected with religion – up to 95% of the inhabitants of Bohemia were Protestants (See Hussite) when the Habsburgs took power. Although the Habsburgs had promised freedom of religion, they started rampant anti-Reformation and re-Catholization efforts which made most of the Czech elites flee the country. This violent re-Catholization has been suggested to be one of the reasons behind today’s widespread Czech atheism. During the two following centuries the Czech language had been more or less eradicated… Read more »

Constantine
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Constantine

Pretty much correct. I would add that while the Czechoslovak crisis over Sudetenland deepened, there was one country that started making preparations to aid Czechoslovakia and that was the USSR. Still, Benes informed them that he would not opt for war without western support. An interesting detail: Poland vehemently refused to aid Czechoslovakia (as it was about to seize a small chunk of the country) and went so far as to undermine Soviet efforts to support Benes. The US ambassador in Paris, William Bullitt, reported that his Polish counterpart, Lukacsiewicz, told him that Poland would join Germany in the case… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
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Rastislav Veľká Morava

Thank you for that.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Czechoslovakia should have fought in 1938.

USSR and Czechs combined could have won against Germany.

Fero Dibarbora
Guest
Fero Dibarbora

To nase Slovensko nemalo moc na vyber. Ked sapodpisal pakt Polsko-Nemecky pakt, tak MZV vyhlasil, ze Polsko uz sa neciti byt viazane mierovymi dohoodami a v buducnosti ocakava spolocne Polsko Madarske hranice. Ja osobne povazujem Tisov stat, za kolaborantsky, ale taktiez vidim, ze vela inych moznosti nebolo. Bud byt vazalom Nemecka s vlastnym statom, alebo zaniknut pod Polskom a Madarskom. Mimochodom Poliaci zamietli pred Mnichovom mozny presun sovietskych vojsk na pomoc CSR v pripade potreby…

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Souhlas.

btheist
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btheist
Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Immediately after Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia, Poland used the opportunity to invade Czech Territory and took all of Czech Silesia for themselves.

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Typical czechist crap😂 And in 1919 the same territory including half of a Free City Cieszyn was invaded by Marsians and after killing ca 3000 Polish defendants and locals it was gifted to masonic project called czechoslovakia which soon after invaded (with a help from Mars 😆) ethnic Hungarian territory to expand eastern borders of its pseudo state (which is no more😂after another German-led split some 22 years back)! And in 1939 they took 6 year mental vacation (but industry full steem for German war effort) with German pseudo occupation (protectorate indeed😎) and in May 1945 had a week of… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Totally and factually wrong diarrhea.

You Russophobic Jesuit and Vatican Controlled Useful Idiot Polish Government think that we Czechs, Moravians and Slovakians are really Poles and should join you.

Never going to happen!

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

Join who? GERMAN vomit?😂😂😂

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

We are Slavs, different than Poles, where it has been proven that the Ashkenazi (ie: Khazarian) Haplogroup is very prevalent.

We will not join any sort of Comedic Fantasy Empire Projects of Poles,like the current reiteration, so called Three Seas Initiative.

We are moving towards Russia along with Hungary.

Walter Dublanica
Member
Walter Dublanica

Good that Slavs join up with each other. What is the Haplogroup?

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Genetic Haplogroups of Poles have heavy Ashkenazi (Khazar) Concentrations.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You talk absolute nonsense.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Silesia was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and was German.
The Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Silesia was conquered by Prussia only in 1742.

It originated in 8th-9th century and was part of the Great Moravian Empire with majority Slavic Speaking population up until today.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

And the U.S. belonged to the Native Indians and a war between Britain and “other colonial immigrants” took place after which in 1776 the immigrant elite declared American independence and the genocide of the Natives became legal.
Should the world do something about that, you think?
In the 8th-9th century most people could neither read nor write so the “writing” was done by interested parties, which had little if anything to do with any reality.
But keep dreaming your ideology.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Yes the only way to take the territory is to completely wipe out the original culture and language of the subjugated people and become the majority, leaving no trace.
This did not happen in Silesia, Slavs remain the majority.
Therefore there are only two conclusions: You are trolling poorly, or you are simply stupid.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

After France, Great Britain and the Nazis carved Czechoslovakia in 1938. Italy, Austria, Spain, Romania , the Baltics, were all Hitler’s allies. The United States waited until December 1941 to declare war to Germany (they even had a pro-Hitler ambassador in UK – Joe Kennedy Sr.). It was then clear to the Soviet Union, that US and the rest of Europe DID NOT want to fight against Hitler. So the pact of non-aggression signed with Germany, was only logical. Less than two years later, on June 22, 1941, Hitler broke the pact (which he never intended to respect) and invaded… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Another Einstein! roll eyes

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

“CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Edvard Beneš was the most influential Czech
politician of the inter-war years and while less radical than many of
his neighbours, he also left an ambiguous legacy of largely
authoritarian rule.”

Don’t think that correct. Benes’ rule was a largely democratic rule.

Czechoslovakia was one of the most democratic and least repressive states in europe during 1920s, 30s.

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I think this article forgot the 1938 German-French treaty.

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

Exactly. And the Anschluss, the occupation of Austria, in 1938 too.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

ahum…..Daisy…..After the 3 year miraculous recovery IN Germany after its total destruction in WW1. Having been entirely broken up…The Austrians who were still struggling after WW1 and the depression BEGGED Germany to allow it to join it. That is what Anschluss means…It means JOINING….There was NO occupation and every Austrian young man became part of the German army…..I know this because the Dutch resistance brought us a Austrian deserter with a death sentence on his head. He became my uncle. I am still in touch with his children in Vienna. “The Sound of Music” and the von Trapp family was… Read more »

Daisy Adler
Guest
Daisy Adler

“Sweden and Finland remained legally neutral”

“Neutral” , my foot. Sweden provided nazi Germany it the iron ore, necessary to the weapons industry, and even had its own SS brigade of 11,000 voluntaries, who fought against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front. As “neutral” as Switzeland , which sheltered in its banks’ coffers the gold and artworks stolen by the nazis.

Ivan Grozny
Guest
Ivan Grozny

Also, little known but a fact – Sweden allowed the transfer of soldiers, including their weapons, by train, from the south all the way to the northern border with Norway!

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

Tragedy of Czechoslovakia was that in September 1938, by most estimates, it had a more powerful military than Germany. It should have fought in 1938.

But UK under Chamberlain had a completely different agenda of pushing Germany eastwards to destroy USSR.

http://www.yamaguchy.com/library/quigley/anglo_12b.html

“Dr. Quigley explains how Nazi Germany seized a stronger Czechoslovakia”

http://www.carrollquigley.net/misc/Quigley_explains_how_Germany_conquered_Czechoslovakia.htm

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Czechoslovakia was until 1918 the German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia. So after the German Empire was created by unifying all these German Kingdoms etc into one large country called Germany in 1871 Britain/France and the U.S have done nothing but try to break up this German Reich. Germany did not create WW1 nor WW2. Britain/France and the US did. The Versailles Treaty chopped up Germany and Poland was created from the Kingdom of Prussia. and the Kingdom of Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Hitler’s aim was to restore Germany as much as possible. Now why would the Germans in Czechoslovakia fight against… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

It was only German Speaking because of attempted official Vatican Jesuit eradication of Czech Language since the defeat at the battle of White Mountain.

The Czech Hussites should have adopted the imperial mindset of the Anglo Saxon and German Western Mentality when they conquered up to part of Germany, but did not stay.
This is typical of Slavs, as we just want to be left in peace to live and prosper.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Whatever….go ahead make up your own history.
Who’s we…Poland?
Who’s THEY “conquered up part of Germany but did not stay”?
You giving me brain cramp here.
Seems your brain goes way faster than your fingers. And while I am sure you have some coherent thoughts in your head they do not appear in these pages.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

I Stated “Slavs” and then “we” as I am one, so are the Czechs, and so were the Hussites, in my last comment

I Stated “Hussites” and then referred to them as “they” in my last comment.

It seems you have a reading comprehension issue, responding to something you only imagined to have actually read.

There is no made up history in my comment, just fact, that apparently doesn’t support your particular beliefs, as per your previous comment.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

Resorting to Local names does not help your cause. The Check Hussites did not conquer Germany. Czechoslovakia was the Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918 whether you like it or not. So Czechoslovakia was an artificial country that rightfully was part of Germany since 1871 and was illegally cut off from /Germany by the Versailles Treaty. So to speak of Hitler occupying Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) is absurd. Hussites are a local form of Christianity and why that should have entered into this discussion beats me. Hitler’s aim was to reunite German land with Germany… After WW2 there was whole scale ethnic cleaning… Read more »

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Not my cause, but Historical Facts.
Thanks to the Hussites which were Czech Slavic National resistance to Roman Catholics and German Speakers. For two centuries Czech and Moravian Lands were free and Czech Speaking, thanks to the Hussites.
It wasn’t until 1620 when the Holy Roman Empire won the battle of White Mountain, that forced an official Germanization Policy, German immigration began and Czech Language was banned.

Your failure to comprehend is because of your reading comprehension issues, detailed for you in my last comment.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Campaigns of 1426 and 1427 (fourth anti-Hussite Crusade): In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies. In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened. Martin proclaimed yet another crusade in 1427. He appointed Cardinal Henry Beaufort of England as Papal Legate of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, to lead the crusader forces. The crusaders were defeated at the Battle of Tachov. The Hussites subsequently invaded… Read more »

Constantine
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Constantine

Czechoslovakia was not part of Germany, but of Austria-Hungary. The German minority region was the Sudeten borderland. The rest of the country wasn’t German speaking. And despite Nazi claims, the Czechoslovak authorities did not oppress the Germans. As for the Versailles Treaty, one may debate whether it was harsh or not. But it wasn’t illegal, since the Germans lost the war. Considering the far more draconian terms that the Germans imposed upon Russia in Brest-Litovsk – while they were under pressure to make peace in the east as soon as possible – one can only imagine what they had in… Read more »

Bankotsu
Guest
Bankotsu

I’ll go with Quigley.

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

That’s because you did not survive that war while I did.

The Narrator
Guest
The Narrator

NOOOOO IT’S THE FAULT OF THE PERSON WHO SHOT ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND! and the first people who declared war are the Brits and French!

samo war
Guest
samo war

adolffH was cia project ?

BogSik
Guest
BogSik

What a mega dose of horse shit this Russian propaganda article is😂😆😈 Bolshevics were not once but twice saved from total wipe out under combined Polish army and remnants of zarist armies in 1919 and in 1920 only because prusso-Germany was able to influence not just Piłsudski but also Dmowski!!! Moscow would have been cleared in days if the offensive were not stopped! Had Polish forces joined on either occasion with white Russians, Moscow would now be a provincial city in central Russia totally devoid of bolshevia scum which has infested that city and continues to produce such propaganda as… Read more »

my2Cents
Guest
my2Cents

You’ve got your dates screwed up….The Tsar was dead in 1918 and Prussia had become Poland as per the Versailles Treaty in 1917 which broke up Germany. Bohemia became Czechoslovakia. Let me remind you that it was the Soviets that decimated the German Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, at the cost of 27 million Russian lives. THEY won the war. It was only 2.5 years later that the allies landed in Normandy for the mop up action and to make sure the Soviets would not overrun the whole of Europe. THEY preferred to do that themselves. Poland is an artificial country. In… Read more »

Vera Gottlieb
Guest
Vera Gottlieb

Wasn’t WW 1 to be the war to end all wars? And we are still not done with wars and more wars.

Rastislav Veľká Morava
Member
Rastislav Veľká Morava

Adam you forgot Bulgaria, a German Nazi Ally.
Could it be to not offend the sensibilities of your friend, Nedka?

That being said I appreciate your well written articles and thinking, and your interviews with Nedka.
You are however Factually wrong here in this article, about Czechoslovakia.

Bessarabyn
Guest
Bessarabyn

Thanks. One correction : ” resistance to fascism was ” first led by the monarchist Serb General Mihailovitsch with brave allyugoslav men (and women) until treacherous Albion cut them off and sent all armaments nand supplies to the communist Croat Tito . He wrote : > I have outsmarted and deceived that old fox Churchill <. It was the Oxfordian armchair socialist poofters and the NWO servant Churchill himself who killed the strongest opposition on the Balkans. They then dismantled the state of Yugoslavia and of Serbia. caused the death of 250 000 human beings , created fake "states" and… Read more »

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FBI recommended Michael Flynn not have lawyer present during interview, did not warn of false statement consequences

Flynn is scheduled to be sentenced on Dec. 18.

Washington Examiner

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Via The Washington Examiner…


Former FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe, who arranged the bureau’s interview with then-national security adviser Michael Flynn at the White House on Jan. 24, 2017 — the interview that ultimately led to Flynn’s guilty plea on one count of making false statements — suggested Flynn not have a lawyer present at the session, according to newly-filed court documents. In addition, FBI officials, along with the two agents who interviewed Flynn, decided specifically not to warn him that there would be penalties for making false statements because the agents wanted to ensure that Flynn was “relaxed” during the session.

The new information, drawn from McCabe’s account of events plus the FBI agents’ writeup of the interview — the so-called 302 report — is contained in a sentencing memo filed Tuesday by Flynn’s defense team.

Citing McCabe’s account, the sentencing memo says that shortly after noon on Jan. 24 — the fourth day of the new Trump administration — McCabe called Flynn on a secure phone in Flynn’s West Wing office. The two men discussed business briefly and then McCabe said that he “felt that we needed to have two of our agents sit down” with Flynn to discuss Flynn’s talks with Russian officials during the presidential transition.

McCabe, by his own account, urged Flynn to talk to the agents alone, without a lawyer present. “I explained that I thought the quickest way to get this done was to have a conversation between [Flynn] and the agents only,” McCabe wrote. “I further stated that if LTG Flynn wished to include anyone else in the meeting, like the White House counsel for instance, that I would need to involve the Department of Justice. [Flynn] stated that this would not be necessary and agreed to meet with the agents without any additional participants.”

Within two hours, the agents were in Flynn’s office. According to the 302 report quoted in the Flynn sentencing document, the agents said Flynn was “relaxed and jocular” and offered the agents “a little tour” of his part of the White House.

“The agents did not provide Gen. Flynn with a warning of the penalties for making a false statement under 18 U.S.C. 1001 before, during, or after the interview,” the Flynn memo says. According to the 302, before the interview, McCabe and other FBI officials “decided the agents would not warn Flynn that it was a crime to lie during an FBI interview because they wanted Flynn to be relaxed, and they were concerned that giving the warnings might adversely affect the rapport.”

The agents had, of course, seen transcripts of Flynn’s wiretapped conversations with Russian then-ambassador Sergey Kislyak. “Before the interview, FBI officials had also decided that if ‘Flynn said he did not remember something they knew he said, they would use the exact words Flynn used … to try to refresh his recollection. If Flynn still would not confirm what he said … they would not confront him or talk him through it,'” the Flynn memo says, citing the FBI 302.

“One of the agents reported that Gen. Flynn was ‘unguarded’ during the interview and ‘clearly saw the FBI agents as allies,'” the Flynn memo says, again citing the 302.

Later in the memo, Flynn’s lawyers argue that the FBI treated Flynn differently from two other Trump-Russia figures who have pleaded guilty to and been sentenced for making false statements. One of them, Alexander Van der Zwaan, “was represented by counsel during the interview; he was interviewed at a time when there was a publicly disclosed, full-bore investigation regarding Russian interference in the 2016 election; and he was given a warning that it is a federal crime to lie during the interview,” according to the memo. The other, George Papadopoulos, “was specifically notified of the seriousness of the investigation…was warned that lying to investigators was a ‘federal offense’…had time to reflect on his answers…and met with the FBI the following month for a further set of interviews, accompanied by his counsel, and did not correct his false statements.”

The message of the sentencing memo is clear: Flynn, his lawyers suggest, was surprised, rushed, not warned of the context or seriousness of the questioning, and discouraged from having a lawyer present.

That is all the sentencing document contains about the interview itself. In a footnote, Flynn’s lawyers noted that the government did not object to the quotations from the FBI 302 report.

In one striking detail, footnotes in the Flynn memo say the 302 report cited was dated Aug. 22, 2017 — nearly seven months after the Flynn interview. It is not clear why the report would be written so long after the interview itself.

The brief excerpts from the 302 used in the Flynn defense memo will likely spur more requests from Congress to see the original FBI documents. Both House and Senate investigating committees have demanded that the Justice Department allow them to see the Flynn 302, but have so far been refused.

In the memo, Flynn’s lawyers say that he made a “serious error in judgment” in the interview. Citing Flynn’s distinguished 30-plus year record of service in the U.S. Army, they ask the judge to go along with special counsel Robert Mueller’s recommendation that Flynn be spared any time in prison.

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Macron offers crumbs to protestors in bid to save his globalist agenda (Video)

The Duran Quick Take: Episode 36.

Alex Christoforou

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The Duran’s Alex Christoforou and Editor-in-Chief Alexander Mercouris take a quick look at French President Macron’s pathetic display of leadership as he offers protestors little in the way of concessions while at the same time promising to crack down hard on any and all citizens who resort to violence.

Meanwhile France’s economy is set for a deep recession as French output and production grinds to a halt.

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Via Zerohedge


As if Brussels didn’t have its hands full already with Italy and the UK, the European Union will soon be forced to rationalize why one of its favorite core members is allowed to pursue populist measures to blow out its budget deficit to ease domestic unrest while another is threatened with fines potentially amounting to billions of euros.

When blaming Russia failed to quell the widespread anger elicited by his policies, French President Emmanuel Macron tried to appease the increasingly violent “yellow vests” protesters who have sacked his capital city by offering massive tax cuts that could blow the French budget out beyond the 3% budget threshold outlined in the bloc’s fiscal rules.

Given the concessions recently offered by Italy’s populists, Macron’s couldn’t have picked a worse time to challenge the bloc’s fiscal conventions. As Bloomberg pointed out, these rules will almost certainly set the Continent’s second largest economy on a collision course with Brussels. To be clear, Macron’s offered cuts come with a price tag of about €11 billion according to Les Echos, and will leave the country with a budget gap of 3.5% of GDP in 2019, with one government official said the deficit may be higher than 3.6%.

By comparison, Italy’s initial projections put its deficit target at 2.4%, a number which Europe has repeatedly refused to consider.

Macron’s promises of fiscal stimulus – which come on top of his government’s decision to delay the planned gas-tax hikes that helped inspire the protests – were part of a broader ‘mea culpa’ offered by Macron in a speech Monday night, where he also planned to hike France’s minimum wage.

Of course, when Brussels inevitably objects, perhaps Macron could just show them this video of French police tossing a wheelchair-bound protester to the ground.

Already, the Italians are complaining.  Speaking on Tuesday, Italian cabinet undersecretary Giancarlo Giorgetti said Italy hasn’t breached the EU deficit limit. “I repeat that from the Italian government there is a reasonable approach, if there is one also from the EU a solution will be found.”

“France has several times breached the 3% deficit. Italy hasn’t done it. They are different situations. There are many indicators to assess.”

Still, as one Guardian columnist pointed out in an op-ed published Tuesday morning, the fact that the gilets jaunes (yellow vest) organizers managed to pressure Macron to cave and grant concessions after just 4 weeks of protests will only embolden them to push for even more radical demands: The collapse of the government of the supremely unpopular Macron.

Then again, with Brussels now facing certain accusations of hypocrisy, the fact that Macron was pressured into the exact same populist measures for which Italy has been slammed, the French fiasco raises the odds that Rome can pass any deficit measure it wants with the EU now forced to quietly look away even as it jawbones all the way from the bank (i.e., the German taxpayers).

“Macron’s spending will encourage Salvini and Di Maio,” said Giovanni Orsina, head of the School of Government at Rome’s Luiss-Guido Carli University. “Macron was supposed to be the spearhead of pro-European forces, if he himself is forced to challenge EU rules, Salvini and Di Maio will jump on that to push their contention that those rules are wrong.”

While we look forward to how Brussels will square this circle, markets are less excited.

Exhausted from lurching from one extreme to another following conflicting headlines, traders are already asking if “France is the new Italy.” The reason: the French OAT curve has bear steepened this morning with 10Y yields rising as much as ~6bp, with the Bund/OAT spread reaching the widest since May 2017 and the French presidential election. Though well below the peaks of last year, further widening would push the gap into levels reserved for heightened political risk.

As Bloomberg macro analyst Michael Read notes this morning, it’s hard to see a specific near-term trigger blowing out the Bund/OAT spread but the trend looks likely to slowly drift higher.

While Macron has to fight on both domestic and European fronts, he’ll need to keep peace at home to stay on top. Remember that we saw the 10Y spread widen to ~80bps around the May ’17 elections as concerns of a move toward the political fringe played out in the markets, and the French President’s popularity ratings already look far from rosy.

And just like that France may have solved the Italian crisis.

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Watch: Democrat Chuck Schumer shows his East Coast elitism on live TV

Amazing moment in which the President exhibits “transparency in government” and shows the world who the Democrat leaders really are.

Seraphim Hanisch

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One of the reasons Donald Trump was elected to the Presidency was because of his pugnacious, “in your face” character he presented – and promised TO present – against Democrat policy decisions and “stupid government” in general.

One of the reasons President Donald Trump is reviled is because of his pugnacious, “in your face” character he presented – and promised TO present – in the American political scene.

In other words, there are two reactions to the same characteristic. On Tuesday, the President did something that probably cheered and delighted a great many Americans who witnessed this.

The Democrats have been unanimous in taking any chance to roast the President, or to call for his impeachment, or to incite violence against him. But Tuesday was President Trump’s turn. He invited the two Democrat leaders, presumptive incoming House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, and then, he turned the cameras on:

As Tucker Carlson notes, the body language from Schumer was fury. The old (something)-eating grin covered up humiliation, embarrassment and probably no small amount of fear, as this whole incident was filmed and broadcast openly and transparently to the American public. Nancy Pelosi was similarly agitated, and she expressed it later after this humiliation on camera, saying, “It’s like a manhood thing for him… As if manhood could ever be associated with him.”

She didn’t stop there. According to a report from the New York Daily News, the Queen Bee took the rhetoric a step below even her sense of dignity:

Pelosi stressed she made clear to Trump there isn’t enough support in Congress for a wall and speculated the President is refusing to back down because he’s scared to run away with his tail between his legs.

“I was trying to be the mom. I can’t explain it to you. It was so wild,” Pelosi said of the Oval Office meet, which was also attended by Vice President Pence and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.). “It goes to show you: you get into a tinkle contest with a skunk, you get tinkle all over you.”

This represented the first salvo in a major spin-job for the ultra-liberal San Francisco Democrat. The rhetoric spun by Mrs. Pelosi and Chuck Schumer was desperate as they tried to deflect their humiliation and place it back on the President:

With reporters still present, Trump boasted during the Oval meeting he would be “proud” to shutdown the government if Congress doesn’t earmark cash for his wall before a Dec. 21 spending deadline.

Pelosi told Democrats that Trump’s boisterousness will be beneficial for them.

“The fact is we did get him to say, to fully own that the shutdown was his,” Pelosi said. “That was an accomplishment.”

The press tried to characterize this as a “Trump Tantrum”, saying things like this lede:

While “discussing” a budgetary agreement for the government, President Donald Trump crossed his arms and declared: “we will shut down the government if there is no wall.”

While the Democrats and the mainstream media in the US are sure to largely buy these interpretations of the event, the fact that this matter was televised live shows that the matter was entirely different, and this will be discomfiting to all but those Democrats and Trump-dislikers that will not look at reality.

There appears to be a twofold accomplishment for the President in this confrontation:

  1. The President revealed to his support base the real nature of the conversation with the Democrat leadership, because anyone watching this broadcast (and later, video clip) saw it unedited with their own eyes. They witnessed the pettiness of both Democrats and they witnessed a President completely comfortable and confident about the situation.
  2. President Trump probably made many of his supporters cheer with the commitment to shut down the government if he doesn’t get his border wall funding. This cheering is for both the strength shown about getting the wall finished and the promise to shut the government down, and further, Mr. Trump’s assertion that he would be “proud” to shut the government down, taking complete ownership willingly, reflects a sentiment that many of his supporters share.

The usual pattern is for the media, Democrats and even some Republicans to create a “scare” narrative about government shutdowns, about how doing this is a sure-fire path to chaos and suffering for the United States.

But the educated understanding of how shutdowns work reveals something completely different. Vital services never close. However, National Parks can close partly or completely, and some non-essential government agencies are shuttered. While this is an inconvenience for the employees furloughed during the shutdown, they eventually are re-compensated for the time lost, and are likely to receive help during the shutdown period if they need it. The impact on the nation is minimal, aside from the fact that the government stops spending money at the same frenetic pace as usual.

President Trump’s expression of willingness to do this action and his singling out of the Dem leadership gives the Democrats a real problem. Now the entire country sees their nature. As President Trump is a populist, this visceral display of Democrat opposition and pettiness will make at least some impact on the population, even that group of people who are not Trump fans.

The media reaction and that of the Democrats here show, amazingly, that after three years-plus of Donald Trump being a thorn in their side, they still do not understand how he works, and they also cannot match it against their expected “norms” of establishment behavior.

This may be a brilliant masterstroke, and it also may be followed up by more. The President relishes head-to-head conflict. The reactions of these congress members showed who they really are.

Let the games begin.

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